Philosophy is the reflection about the essence of the things that captivate man and that lead his thinking to ideas that give a conception of the world from a particular perspective. Throughout history there have been great thinkers who have made valuable contributions to different branches, among them are Heraclitus and Parmenides, who although their proposals are considered opposed to each other, with them they have laid the foundations of metaphysics and dialectics.
Who was Heraclitus?
Heraclitus of Ephesus was a Greek philosopher descended from an aristocratic family and was known as the Dark One, as he isolated himself from society to remain submerged in his thoughts. He is considered the founder of dialectics and metaphysics, and with the fragments of his work, the idea that he most fervently puts forward is evident: all things can change.
Among the contributions that this thinker offered is the idea that the universe is made up of opposites, that although they are contrary, they are connected in some way; so things that are different actually constitute a unity. He also argued that the existence of everything we know is due to a natural element, which is fire, so it should also be part of the human soul.
Expressions such as “no one bathes twice in the same river”, were the ones used by this philosopher when explaining that nothing is permanent nor does it last forever, since the only constant is change. In the same way, he delved into the principle of causality, inferring that everything happens as a consequence of something, but while he found the truth, he attributed the reason for it to God.
He used the term “logos” to refer to reason, words and reflection, being the link that allows man to relate to his reality. His contributions have transcended to areas such as psychology, politics and physics.
Who was Parmenides?
Born into an aristocratic family, Parmenides of Elea was a Greek philosopher who founded the Eleatic school. He actively participated in the constitution of the laws of his city, giving a great contribution to local politics. He was the first to assert that the rational interpretation of things, beliefs and opinions, are what makes man a superior species.
His only work, which is known today, has been an extensive poem entitled “On Nature”, in which he expands in the form of verses his innovative philosophy for the time, containing ideas such as being, understanding it as an indivisible unit. , finite, immutable, indestructible, unbegotten. Establishes being as the fundamental principle and objective of philosophy
In the second part of his work, he states that knowledge is achieved in two ways, through the truth, which uses reason, and the path of logic, or opinions, which is misleading because it creates the illusion of change and is based on the use of the senses.
Difference Between Heraclitus and Parmenides
|It establishes that the world is changing and that man faces an eternal future.||Points out that the world is static and that change is an illusion of the senses|
|The truth changes to the extent that reality does too||The truth is immutable|
|Find the being in the logos, or the reason, but this is not static||Sees being as the essence of things, governs and orders maintaining its unity|
|Define your philosophy from the connection between opposites||It is based on the logic of being as the principle of everything|