What was the First Industrial Revolution?
The first industrial revolution began towards the end of the 17th century and consisted of the transformation of the way of life of a large part of the European population, which until that moment had animal traction and agriculture within the same region as the production system. The first industrial revolution produced a great transformation in all sectors of society, such as economic, labor and social.
The factor that started this great change in the population of the time was the discovery of the steam engine, and from it multiple uses arose that allowed the evolution of industry and means of transport, so which greatly increased the reach range of the producers, which in turn increased production.
However, this revolution was interrupted due to conflicts that occurred simultaneously that prevented further progress in the industry, such as war, epidemics and famine. So it was until the mid-eighteenth century, that the activation of heavy industry and mining would resurface in much of the European territory.
The industries took advantage of the natural resources that they had in their environment to market it, this is how the first textile, iron and steel industries appeared, the companies that worked wood and coal, thanks to the appearance of ships and railways, it became possible the transport of merchandise between regions, for which communication routes were also developed to transport the products. Likewise, food production increased, so new cultivation techniques emerged and the use of fertilizers was incorporated.
All this generated great advances in the industry but also brought with it the beginning of the divisions between the social classes in a very marked way, and that is that the monarchy had the resources, while the bourgeoisie was the owner of the industry and the proletariat. , which made up the bulk of the population, was the working class.
What was the Second Industrial Revolution?
By the mid-19th century, the discoveries that ushered in the second industrial revolution were the internal combustion engine, electricity, and later oil and gas as fuel sources. In addition to this, advances in science and technology were more widespread in Europe and the United States, so the inventive capacity of the human being had a great boom and favored various areas.
Mining bore great fruit by finding many uses for minerals found, such as nickel, steel, zinc, aluminum, copper, among many others, which had great influence in the area of chemistry and construction. In the latter, the formation of cement contributed greatly to the growth of large cities, designing more stable and durable structures.
The second industrial revolution had its beginnings in Europe, the United States and Japan, but it quickly spread to other parts of the world, who adopted new technologies for their own needs and continued with further advances, so this phenomenon is considered by many as the first globalization
With respect to the means of transport, motor vehicles were created and aviation took its first steps, in addition, the techniques of those already existing such as the ship and railway were improved, to have greater travel capacity and that more people had access to them. . In addition to this, communication through radio and telephone was a change that greatly favored work, scientific advances and even the educational system of the time.
In the same way, the increasingly mechanized industries found a form of production that accelerated the process to reach more people in less time and lower costs, which is what refers to mass production.
Difference Between the First and Second Industrial Revolution
- The first industrial revolution originated in Europe, mainly in England, while the second had its peak also in a large part of the European continent, but also in countries such as the United States and Japan.
- The beginning of the first industrial revolution was marked by the discovery of the steam engine, while the second industrial revolution is related to the appearance of other energy sources such as oil, gas, the internal combustion engine and electricity.
- During the first industrial revolution, the first land communication routes for railways were developed; with the second, the existing means of transport were improved to have greater travel capacity and new ones were created that would make it for the common use of the population.
- The inventive capacity of man had its great boom in the second industrial revolution, since techniques were perfected that greatly facilitated and improved tasks in various areas. While in the first industrial revolution, although there were certain inventions, they did not generate a high impact because the technology was still very rudimentary and of limited access.
- In the first revolution the working population, that is to say the proletariat, was massive with little organization. On the other hand, in the second revolution the structure of the employees was more organized and specialized the worker to perform the corresponding tasks.