Physics

Difference Between Conductor and Insulator

Main difference

The main difference between conductor and insulator is that conductor conducts heat and electricity very well while insulator does not conduct heat and electricity.

Conductor vs. Insulator

The conductor is considered to be good at conducting electricity and heat, while the insulator is considered to be a poor conductor of heat and electricity. The conductor that is better at conducting heat and electricity has more free carriers present in them, such as electrons, while the insulator that is better at not conducting electricity does not contain many free electron carriers because the electrons are tightly bound inside. of the atoms. The conductor is usually made of materials that allow an easy flow of electrons from one atom to another atom; on the other hand, the insulator is the material that will not allow the easy flow of electrons from one atom to another.

The atoms that are present in a conductor cannot hold on tightly to its electrons; on the contrary, the atoms that are present in the insulator are strongly attached to each other and cannot transfer electrical energy well. Materials that are considered good conductors of electricity are usually highly conductive; On the other hand, good insulating materials normally consist of low conductivity. The electric field is present at the surface of the conductor but remains zero inside the conductor; on the other hand, the electric field does not arise in the insulator. In the conductor, the magnetic field usually stores energy; on the contrary, the magnetic field in the insulator does not store energy.

The driver’s potential at all points remains the same; on the other hand, the potential of the insulator at all points remains zero. The covalent bond present between the conductor atoms is weak; on the other hand, the covalent bond is strong between the atoms of the insulator. The conductivity of the conductor is very high; on the contrary, the insulator has a very low conductivity.

The conductor contains a very low resistance; on the other hand, the insulation resistance is high; that is why it does not allow the movement of electric charges. The positive temperature of the coefficient of resistance is present in the conductor; on the contrary, the negative temperature coefficient of resistance is present in the insulator. The resistivity of the conductor varies from high to low depending on the presence of electricity, while the resistivity of the insulator is always high.

The conduction band of the conductor is full of electrons; on the other hand, the conduction band of the insulator remains empty. The valence bond of the conductor remains empty, while the valence bond of the insulator is full of electrons. There are currently no prohibited spaces in conductors; on the other hand, there is a largely forbidden space in an insulator.

Various examples of the conductor are aluminum, iron, silver, copper, etc. while some examples of the insulator are paper, rubber, wood, etc. The conductor is widely used to make electrical cables and conductors; On the other hand, insulator is used in electrical cables as insulation, to support electrical equipment, etc.

Comparison chart

Driver Insulating
The material that allows electric current or heat to pass through is known as a conductor. The substance that does not allow electric current or heat to pass through is known as an insulator.
Considered as
Good at conducting electricity and heat. Poor conductor of heat and electricity.
Free electron carriers
More free carriers present in them, such as electrons. It does not contain many free electron carriers.
electron flow
Allow easy flow of electrons from one atom to another atom It would not allow the easy flow of electrons from one atom to another atom.
electron grab
Atoms do not have a strong grip on their electrons. The atoms have become tightly bound together and cannot transfer electrical energy well.
Conductivity
Consists of high conductivity Consists of low conductivity
electric field
Present on the surface of the conductor but remains zero inside the conductor Not present in insulation
Potential
The potential at all points remains the same The potential at all points remains zero
Magnetic field
The magnetic field usually stores energy. The magnetic field does not store energy
Covalent bond
The covalent bond present between atoms is weak. The covalent bond between atoms is strong
Conductivity
conductivity is very high conductivity is low
Endurance
Contains very little resistance Contains high strength
temperature coefficient
The positive temperature of the coefficient of resistance is present. The negative temperature of the coefficient of resistance is present.
Resistivity
The resistivity varies from high to low. resistivity is high
driving band
The conduction band is full of electrons. The conduction band remains empty
valence band
The valence bond remains empty The valence bond is full of electrons.
forbidden space
There are currently no spaces prohibited There is a present, a great forbidden hole
examples
Aluminum, irons, silver, copper, etc. Paper, rubber, wood, etc.
Applications
Widely used for the manufacture of electrical conductors and cables. It is used in electrical cables as insulation, to support electrical equipment, etc.

What is a director?

The term conductor is defined as the material that consists of many free electrons and allows the conduction of heat and electricity. In other words, the conductor is the substance that allows electrons to move freely from one atom to another atom in one or more directions. If we send an electron into a conductor that is electrically charged, the electron will collide with a free electron already present in the conductor and eventually activate it until that electron collides with other free electrons in the conductor.

After that, a chain reaction begins to create an electrical charge in the material. Conductors can easily allow electricity to pass through them because their atomic structure allows free electrons to roam freely in the conductor. Various examples of the conductor are aluminum, iron, silver, copper, etc.

What is insulation?

The insulator is a material that has no free electrons and does not conduct electricity through them. In other words, insulator is a substance that strongly retains electrons that restrict the movement of electrons from one atom to another atom and consequently do not allow electric charges to pass from them. The insulator is of low conductivity and current flow is almost negligible. So insulators are mainly used to protect us from electric shock.

Electrical wires are coated with insulation because sometimes the voltage is high enough in the wires to cause electrical charges to flow through materials that aren’t even considered good conductors of electricity. The insulation coating is made with rubber to save the body from electric shock because the human body is also considered as a good conductor of electricity. Some examples of the insulation are paper, rubber, wood, etc.

Key differences

  1. The material that allows a smooth flow of electrons jumping from one atom to another is commonly known as a conductor; On the other hand, the material that would not allow the smooth flow of electrons jumping from one atom to another is known as an insulator.
  2. The best conductor is good at conducting electricity and heat, while the insulator is considered a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
  3. The conductor consists of free electrons while the insulator does not consist of free electrons.
  4. In a conductor, the atoms don’t have a strong grip on their electrons; on the contrary, in an insulator, the atoms consist of a strong grip on their electrons.
  5. At the surface of the conductor, the electric field exists but remains zero inside the conductor; on the other hand, the electric field does not exist in the insulator.
  6. In a conductor, the magnetic field is used to store energy; on the contrary, the magnetic field is not present in the insulator and it does not store the energy.
  7. In a conductor, the potential remains the same at all points; on the other hand, in an insulator, the potential remains zero at all points.
  8. The thermal conductivity of the conductor is high; on the other hand, the thermal conductivity of the insulator is low.
  9. The covalent bond of the conductor is weak, which occurs between the atoms; on the other hand, between the atoms of the insulator, the covalent bond is always strong.
  10. The conductor consists of a minimal amount of resistance; on the other hand, the resistance of the insulator is high.
  11. In the conductor the positive temperature of the coefficient of resistance is present; on the contrary, in the insulator the negative temperature coefficient of resistance is present.
  12. The resistivity present in the conductor varies from high to low, while the resistivity of the insulator is constantly high.
  13. The conduction band of the conductor is usually full of electrons; on the other hand, the conduction band of the insulator remains empty.
  14. In the conductor, the valence bond remains empty, while in the insulator, the valence bond is usually full of electrons.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the conductor is good at conducting electricity and heat, while the insulator is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.

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