Biology

Difference between cladogram tree and phylogenetic tree

Main difference

The main difference between Cladogram Tree and Phylogenetic Tree is that Cladogram Tree is a diagram that shows divisions that have the same distance and shows the connection between a set of clades, while Phylogenetic Tree is an evolutionary tree that shows an estimate of the phylogeny in that the space of each branch is relative to the amount of incidental evolutionary change.

Cladogram tree vs. phylogenetic tree

A cladogram tree is thought of as a diagram that has branches showing the relationships between a group of clades. On the other hand, a phylogenetic tree is considered as a branching diagram showing the contingent association between many biological species, which are typically based on differences and similarities and also on genetic material. The purpose of the cladogram tree is that its shape shows the relationship between many groups of organisms, whereas in the phylogenetic tree, the distance between the branches depends on the amount of indirect evolutionary change.

The genetic distance or evolutionary time is not represented by the cladogram tree, while the genetic distance present between the group of organisms and the evolutionary one is represented by the phylogenetic tree. A hypothesis about actual evolutionary history is represented by a cladogram tree; however, the phylogenetic tree gives the true evolutionary history up to a certain level.

The cladogram tree is primarily based on the morphological characteristics of the organisms to be displayed; on the contrary, the phylogenetic tree is not only based on some morphological characteristics of the organisms, but also on the genetic relationships of the organisms that will be described. The cladogram tree is made with the same length of branches, and this length of branches does not indicate the evolutionary distance, whereas in the phylogenetic tree, the branch distance indicates the evolutionary distance.

When separating the taxa from the organism, the cladogram tree does not indicate the amount of evolutionary time; on the other hand, the phylogenetic tree shows the amount of evolutionary change when differentiating the taxa of the organism.

Comparative chart
Cladogram tree Phylogenetic tree
The diagrams that are used in cladistics to represent a bond of organisms and how deeply they are associated with each other are known as a cladogram tree. A branching diagram or commonly called a “tree”, which presents the anecdotal evolutionary relationships between various biological species, is known as a phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree.
Considered as
A branch diagram showing the relationships between a group of clades. Branching diagram showing the contingent association between many biological species that are usually based on differences and similarities and also on genetic material.
Relationship
Its shape is intended to show the relationship between many groups of organisms. The distance between the branches depends on the amount of indirect evolutionary change
Evolutionary time or genetic distance
Genetic distance or evolutionary time is not represented by the cladogram tree. The genetic distance between the group of organisms and the evolutionary one is represented by the phylogenetic tree.
Evolutionary history
A hypothesis about actual evolutionary history is represented Give the true evolutionary history at some level
Base
Based primarily on the morphological characteristics of the organisms to be displayed. It is not only based on some morphological characteristics of the organisms, but also on the genetic relationships of the organisms that will be described.
Branch length
Made with the same length of branches, and this length of branches does not indicate the evolutionary distance The branching distance indicates the evolutionary distance
Indication of evolutionary time
By separating the taxa from the organism, your tree does not indicate the amount of evolutionary time It shows the amount of evolutionary change when differentiating the taxa of the organism.

What is a cladogram tree?

A cladogram tree is known as a branching diagram which is used in cladistics to illustrate the evolutionary relationship between the group of clades. A clade is called a set of organisms that consists of fully evolutionary progeny of a common predecessor.

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The amount of evolutionary change in a group of organisms is not represented by the cladogram tree, nor does it specify genetic distance or evolutionary time. Each branch of a cladogram tree ends with a clade and begins with a last common predecessor. The cladogram tree is mainly based on some morphological characteristics of the specific organisms to be displayed.

The cladogram tree is made of branches of equal length, and this length of branches does not indicate evolutionary distance. The cladogram tree does not indicate the amount of evolutionary time when separating the taxa from the organism. A cladogram is drawn by lines and is a tree-shaped diagram. In a cladogram, the nodes symbolize the separation of two groups from their common ancestor.

What is a phylogenetic tree?

A phylogenetic tree is an evolutionary tree and a branching diagram that primarily describes the indirect relationships between many biological organisms. In the phylogenetic tree, the space present between the branches usually shows the degree of incidental evolutionary modification.

Many features such as internal anatomy, external morphology, behavior, DNA and protein sequences, biochemical pathways and also fossil proof are most importantly used to make a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree gives the actual evolutionary history up to a certain level, but they are not always correct. The information provided by DNA sequencing increases the reliability of the associations in the tree.

In evolutionary biology, phylogenetic studies are most useful for finding answers to many difficult problems, for example, the spread of viral infections, the relationship between species and their origin, the migration patterns of species, etc. The advanced level of molecular biology methods has helped many biologists to calculate the phylogenetic connections between organisms with respect to evolutionary modifications of organisms.

Compared to cladograms, the phylogenetic tree has more meaning when talking about the associations of organisms in a meaningful way with respect to their descent and evolution. A phylogenetic tree is generally drawn as similar to a branching tree diagram in which the distance of the branches is compared to the evolutionary distance when a cladogram is contrasted.

Key differences

  1. The cladogram tree is not an evolutionary tree because it does not show the evolutionary relationship; instead, it is a diagram that shows the branches from the same distance and shows the relationship between a group of clades; On the other hand, the phylogenetic tree is known as an evolutionary tree because it shows the evolutionary relationships and shows the contingent association between many biological organisms that are generally based on differences, similarities, and genetic material.
  2. The cladogram tree only offers some hypotheses about the real history of evolution; by contrast, the phylogenetic tree does not give any hypotheses, but represents evolutionary history on some level.
  3. The morphological characteristics of the represented organisms are the main basis of the cladogram tree, while on the other hand, not only the morphological characteristics of the represented organisms, but also the genetic relationships are the basis of a phylogenetic tree.
  4. The relationship between the group of organisms is shown by the shape of the cladogram tree; on the other hand, the length of the branches of the phylogenetic tree depends on the extent of the incidental evolutionary change.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the cladogram tree is based on the assumption diagrams, while the phylogenetic tree is created on genetic interactions between organisms.

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