Molecules or organic compounds exist in abundance on planet Earth, as they are one of the vital molecules, since all living organisms are made up of carbon atoms. It is possible that molecules that possess carbon will be mentioned as organic molecules and, seeing their importance, the whole new branch of organic chemistry is being established to study these compounds and molecules in depth. Also, organic compounds that consist solely of carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons. In addition, they are classified into groups such as linear, cyclic, saturated and unsaturated. According to their arrangement and the nature of the bond between carbon atoms, hydrocarbons can be divided mainly into two types of compounds, aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds.
|Aromatic compounds||Aliphatic compounds|
|Example||Benzene, toluene, xylene naphthalene, aniline.||alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and their derivatives.|
|Saturated or unsaturated||Always unsaturated||Aliphatic compounds can be saturated or unsaturated.|
What are aromatic compounds?
Aromatic compounds are hydrocarbons that have a specific aromatic ring, which differentiates them from other compounds. The benzene ring is made up of three double bonds between hydrocarbons. The molecular formula of benzene is C 6 H 6,and the aromatic or benzene ring formed contains six carbon atoms that are cyclically linked with alternating double bonds. The process of alternating double bonds is known as “conjugation” and it gives the aromatic compound a totally different chemical behavior than other chemical compounds. Studies on this class of organic compounds begin with the discovery of a new hydrocarbon by Michael Farady in 1825. The German chemist August Kekule was the first to recognize these aromatic compounds. Initially the aromatic compounds were resins and essential oils, which had a fragrance or a specific smell and were used in perfumes. With this distinctive feature, this type of hydrocarbon was called aromatic compounds, since the root of this name “aroma” means perfume. Benzene,
What are aliphatic compounds?
Aliphatic compounds are hydrocarbons that lack a benzene ring. For a simpler understanding, these types of hydrocarbon compounds can be known as non-aromatic compounds. On the basis of their structure and formation, these aliphatic compounds can be further classified into cyclic hydrocarbons, linear, branched, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. These aliphatic compounds can be linear or cyclic. The carbon atoms that make up aliphatic compounds can be linked to hydrogen atoms by single, double, or triple bonds. In aliphatic compounds, the bond can be a mixture of single, double, or triple bonds, which means they can be saturated or unsaturated. When carbon atoms are united by a single bond with hydrogen atoms,
Aromatic compounds vs. aliphatic compounds
- Aromatic compounds are hydrocarbons that contain a specific aromatic ring, which is also known as benzene ring, on the other hand, aliphatic compounds are hydrocarbons that can be said non-aromatic compounds since they lack a benzene ring in their structure .
- Initially the aromatic compounds were resins and essential oils, which had a fragrance or a specific smell and were used in perfumes.
- Benzene, toluene, xylene naphthalene, aniline are some of the common examples of aromatic compounds, while alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and their derivatives are some of the more common examples of aliphatic compounds.
- Aromatic compounds are always unsaturated, while aliphatic compounds can be saturated or unsaturated.