There are two main steps in cell division. One is the nuclear division and the other is the cytoplasmic division. Mitosis and meiosis are the two types of nuclear division. Following these processes, anaphase is the stage in the process of cell division (mitosis or meiosis) in which the daughter chromosomes move away from each other towards opposite sides of the cell. In addition, it is classified into two as, anaphase 1 and anaphase 2. Anaphase 1 is the phase in which the homologous chromosomes separate on each side of the cell and the centromere is intact while in anaphase 2, the sister chromatids are separated. separate and the centromere splits into two resulting in two separate chromatids. Another main difference between anaphase 1 and anaphase 2 is that anaphase 1 occurs in diploid cells,
|Basis of distinction||Anaphase 1||Anaphase 2|
|Idea||Anaphase 1 occurs in diploid cells while meiosis 1.||Anaphase 2 occurs in haploid cells while meiosis 2.|
|Definition||Anaphase 1 is the phase of meiosis 1 (nuclear division) in which two different chromosomes separate from each other and move to opposite poles.||Anaphase 2 is the phase of meiosis 2 (nuclear division) in which two sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite poles.|
|Centromere functionality||At anaphase 1, a single centromere remains intact, as individual homologous chromosomes separate.||At anaphase 2, two centromeres divide and separate as two sister chromatids move toward each end of the poles.|
|Main functionality||It is one of the most important stages of cell division, in which chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles for division.||It is also one of the most important stages in meiosis 2 cell division, in which two sister chromatids attached to their centromeres separate and move to opposite poles for division.|
|Occurs||Anaphase 1 occurs in diploid cells in meiosis 1.||Anaphase 2 occurs in haploid cells at meiosis 2.|
|Spindle fibers||Two spindle fibers bind to the centromeres of two individually different chromosomes.||Two spindle fibers are attached to the single centromere of the two sister chromatids.|
|Chromosome separation||Two homologous chromosomes are separated.||Two sister chromatids separate.|
|Mitosis similarity||It has no similarity to the anaphase of mitosis.||Anaphase 2, on the other hand, is quite similar to the anaphase of mitosis.|
|Chromosome presence||Counterpart. chromosomes are present at the opposite end of the poles.||Sister chromatids are present at the opposite end of the poles.|
What is anaphase 1?
Anaphase 1 is defined as the phase in which homologous (similar) chromosomes separate from each other and move to opposite sides of the cell. During this phase, the cell begins to lengthen. In this phase, the chromosomes are arranged at the equator of the spindles. Anaphase 1 occurs in a diploid cell. At anaphase 1, spindle fibers bind to the centromeres of homologous chromosomes, such that each centromere is attached to two spindle fibers. At anaphase 1, homologous chromosomes separate at opposite sides or poles of the nucleus, but sister chromatids remain attached. One thing to keep in mind is that at anaphase one, the centromere has no place. Finally, each pole receives half the chromosomes. In the end, a homologous chromosome will go to each daughter cell.
What is anaphase 2?
Anaphase 2 is defined as the phase in which the sister chromatids separate and the centromere splits in two, resulting in two separate chromatids. Anaphase 2 occurs in haploid cells. In this phase, the arrangement of the chromatid plates rotates about 90 degrees around the arrangement at anaphase 1. At anaphase 2, the spindle fibers are attached to the same chromosome. The spindles then pull on the centromere, resulting in the division of the centromere. Now the sister chromatids separate. Each chromatid reaches each pole and, at the end of the phase, each daughter cell has a sister chromatid. After anaphase 2, the cell is now ready to completely separate into daughter cells, ultimately resulting in four daughter cells at the end of division.
- Anaphase 1 occurs in a diploid cell and contrary to this anaphase two occurs in the haploid cell.
- Anaphase 1 results in the separation of chromosomes, while anaphase 2 results in the separation of two sister chromatids.
- In anaphase, one centromere remains intact while in anaphase two centromeres divide.
- In anaphase, one of the chromosomes separates from the opposite pole and the sister chromatids are together, while in anaphase two chromosomes separate, dividing the centromere and sister chromatids.