Difference between dicot root and monocot root

Main difference

The main difference between dicot root and monocot root is that in dicot root the phloem surrounds the xylem tissues that are present in the center of the plant, while in monocot root the xylem and phloem form a circular arrangement.

Dicot root vs. monocot root

Based on the total number of cotyledons in the seed, flowering plants are divided into two types, that is, dicots and monocots. Dicots are plants with two cotyledons in their seed, while monocots have only one cotyledon. These two types differ from each other in their structures like stem, leaves, flowers and root, etc. The root is an underground portion of the plant. It plays a very important role in the transportation of water and minerals, etc. from the ground to all parts of the plant. Dicotyledonous plants have a narrow, root-like structure. On the other hand, the root of monocotyledonous plants is wider and has a fibrous root-like structure.In dicot root, vascular tissues are few in number, so the xylem is present in the center and is surrounded by phloem, while; The monocot root has a different arrangement of xylem and phloem.

Comparative chart

Dicot root Monocot root
The root of the plant that has two cotyledons in its seed is known as a dicot root. The root of the plant that has a single cotyledon in its seed is known as a monocot root.
Structure
The dicot root is narrow and has a taproot-like structure. The root of monocots is comparatively wider and has a fibrous root-like structure.
Number of vascular tissues
The dicot root has less amount of xylem and phloem, that is, from 2 to 8. The monocot root has a large number of xylem and phloem, that is, 8 to many.
Arrangement of vascular tissues
In dicot roots, the xylem is present in the center and is surrounded by phloem. In the monocot root, the xylem and phloem have a ring-shaped arrangement.
Xylem shape
The xylem vessels are angular or polygonal The xylem vessels are rounded or oval.
Pericycle
In the dicot root, the pericycle gives rise to the cork cambium, lateral roots, and parts of the vascular cambium. In the monocot root, the pericycle forms lateral roots only.
Marrow
The pith is absent in the dicot root or is very small and undeveloped. The largest and most well-developed pith is present in the roots of monocots.
Connective tissues
In dicot roots, there are parenchymal connective tissues. Monocotyledonous roots have sclerenchymal connective tissues.
Cambium
The dicot root has cambium which is formed by the conjunctive parenchyma In the roots of monocots, the cambium is absent.
Xylem
The xylem is usually tetrarch in dicotyledonous roots. The xylem is a poliarch in a monocot root.
Cortex
The bark is narrow in dicot roots. The bark is very wide at the roots of monocots.
Cover
In the dicot root, the oldest roots are covered by cork. In the root of monocots, the oldest roots are covered by exodermis.
Secondary growth
Secondary growth occurs on dicot roots. There is no secondary growth on monocot roots.
Examples
Beans, peas and peanuts etc. have dicot roots. Bananas, corn and palm, etc. are examples of monocot roots.
What is Dicot Root ?

The dicot root has a structure similar to a taproot and is present in dicot plants. The dicot root has a continuous amount of xylem and phloem, so the xylem is in the shape of an ‘X’ and is surrounded by phloem. If we cut the root in cross section, the xylem vessels are angular or polygonal in shape. In dicot roots, there is the parenchymal connective tissue that creates the vascular cambium. The dicot root shows secondary growth. Peas, beans, and peanuts, etc. are examples of dicot roots.

What is Monocot Root ?

The monocot root has a fibrous root-like structure and is present in monocot plants. It has xylem and phloem alternately arranged in a ring-shaped structure. The xylem vessels are round or oval in shape. It has sclerenchymal connective tissues and the cambium is absent in it. There is no secondary growth on monocot roots. Corn, banana, palm, etc. are your examples.

Key differences

  1. The root of the plant that has two cotyledons in its seed is known as a dicot root, while the root of the plant that has only one cotyledon in its seed is known as a monocot root.
  2. The dicot root is narrow and has a taproot-like structure; on the other hand, the root of monocots is comparatively wider and has a fibrous root-like structure.
  3. The dicot root has a low number of xylem and phloem, that is, from 2 to 8. In contrast, the monocot root has a large number of xylem and phloem, that is, from 8 to many.
  4. In dicot roots the xylem is present in the center and is surrounded by phloem on the other side, in monocot root the xylem and phloem are arranged in a ring.
  5. The xylem vessels are angular or polygonal in dicotyledonous roots on the other side; The xylem vessels are rounded or oval in the roots of monocots.
  6. In the dicot root, the pericycle forms the cork cambium, the lateral roots and parts of the vascular cambium while, in the monocot root, the pericycle forms only the lateral roots.
  7. The pith is absent in the dicot root or is very small and undeveloped. On the other hand, in the roots of monocots there is a larger and well-developed pith.
  8. In dicot roots, there are parenchymal connective tissues, while monocot roots have sclerenchymal connective tissues.
  9. Cambium is present in dicot root and is formed by the conjunctive parenchyma on the other side, in monocot roots the cambium is absent.
  10. Xylem is usually tetrarch in dicot roots, while xylem is polyarch in monocot roots.
  11. The bark is comparatively narrow in dicot roots; on the other hand, the bark is very wide at the roots of monocots.
  12. In dicot root, older roots are enclosed by cork, while in monocot root, older roots are covered by exodermis.
  13. Secondary growth takes place on dicot roots. In contrast, there is no secondary growth on monocot roots.
  14. Peas, beans, peanuts, etc. they have dicot roots. On the other hand, corn, banana and palm, etc. are examples of monocotyledonous roots.
Final Thought

The above discussion summarizes that dicot root is a taproot-like structure with secondary growth and is present in dicot plants. On the other hand, the monocot root has a fibrous structure similar to a root without secondary growth and is present in dicot plants.

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