Medicine

Difference Between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus

Main difference

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which the body is unable to produce enough insulin to maintain the blood glucose level, resulting in high blood glucose, while diabetes insipidus is a disease characterized by thirst excessive with excretion of a large amount of dilute urine. Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are two totally different medical conditions. In diabetes mellitus, polyuria is due to osmotic diuresis, whereas in diabetes insipidus, polyuria is due to decreased ADH (antidiuretic hormone) production or decreased response of the kidneys to ADH.

Diabetes mellitus versus diabetes insipidus

In physiology, we study two types of diabetes. One is diabetes mellitus and another is diabetes insipidus. Both diseases are very different from each other due to their cause and origin. But they have one thing in common: excessive urination. Diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes; It is characterized by an excessive level of glucose in the blood followed by excessive urination. And, diabetes insipidus is the disorder characterized by excessive urination due to functional instability of ADH or lack of ADH, in this excess water is lost from the body resulting in many serious conditions like dehydration.

Diabetes mellitus is due to a disorder of the pancreas, while diabetes insipidus is a disorder of the hypothalamus. Diabetes mellitus is due to insulin deficiency, while diabetes insipidus is due to ADH deficiency. Insulin deficiency causes an increase in blood glucose level, while in diabetes insipidus there is no increase in blood glucose level. In diabetes mellitus, glucose is excreted in the urine, while in diabetes insipidus there is no glucose in the urine.

Comparison chart

Base Mellitus diabetes diabetes insipidus
glucose level In diabetes mellitus, the blood glucose level is high. In diabetes insipidus, the glucose level is normal, but excess water is lost.
Hormone Diabetes mellitus is related to a hormone called insulin. Diabetes insipidus is related to the hormone ADH.
Gland In diabetes mellitus, one gland that is involved is the pancreas. In diabetes insipidus, the pituitary gland is involved.
Types of diabetes Diabetes mellitus is more common in types of diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is seen less.
Symptoms In diabetes mellitus, the patient feels hungry due to the loss of glucose in the urine. In diabetes insipidus, the patient feels thirsty due to loss of excess water.

What is diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes means excessive urination and Mellitus means honey. Diabetes mellitus is the most common disorder seen. This disorder is characterized by excess blood glucose leading to polyurea. The normal blood glucose level ranges from 70 to 110 mg/dl. After food intake, the blood glucose level rises, resulting in the secretion of a specific hormone called insulin. Insulin is the only hormone that lowers the blood glucose level. Since insulin is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas, it shows its action. It binds to receptors on the cell surface and produces the second messenger inside the cell, primarily calmodulin, and this activates GLUT-4 in the cell, which aids in the uptake or uptake of glucose by cells. Thus, blood glucose moves into the cells and the blood glucose level normalizes. Furthermore, insulin promotes the formation of glycogen (glycogenesis) which also lowers blood glucose. But in diabetes mellitus, the blood glucose level does not decrease. By cause, diabetes mellitus is divided into two types: Type 1 diabetes mellitus or IDDM: In type 1, there is a deficiency of the hormone insulin. This is due to dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas; the beta cells cannot produce insulin because the blood glucose level is greatly increased and cannot be lowered. It is also called IDDM or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In this patient, insulin can be administered externally. Type 2 diabetes mellitus or IIDM: in type 2, insulin is sufficient in the body, but the cells develop insulin resistance so they do not show any response to insulin. Now the insulin cannot perform its action because the cells do not show any effect of the insulin. Therefore, blood glucose cannot be lowered. In this no external insulin is administered, patients use only oral medications. Diabetes mellitus is a serious problem that can cause many disabilities of the body and cause death. The patient grew weaker day by day; he feels pain in the body and also feels hungry every time because the glucose is lost during urination. blood glucose cannot be lowered. In this no external insulin is administered, patients use only oral medications. Diabetes mellitus is a serious problem that can cause many disabilities of the body and cause death. The patient grew weaker day by day; he feels pain in the body and also feels hungry every time because the glucose is lost during urination. blood glucose cannot be lowered. In this no external insulin is administered, patients use only oral medications. Diabetes mellitus is a serious problem that can cause many disabilities of the body and cause death. The patient grew weaker day by day; he feels pain in the body and also feels hungry every time because the glucose is lost during urination.

What is diabetes insipidus?

Diabetes insipidus is a rare form of diabetes; It is characterized by excessive urination due to a lack of the pituitary hormone ADH (vasopressin), which acts on the kidney and regulates the excretion of water from the body. In diabetes insipidus, the pituitary does not secrete enough ADH or stops it altogether. Because excess water is lost from the body. The ADH hormone has a vital role in the hemostasis of our body. ADH when secreted into the blood acts on the kidney. First, the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of the nephrons are impermeable to water. ADH makes them permeable so that water can be reabsorbed from here. In this way, ADH prevents excessive water loss. ADH secretion increases when there is a low concentration of water in the body, so it retains water. But in diabetes insipidus, ADH is not secreted by the pituitary. Now the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of the nephrons are impermeable to water, so water cannot be reabsorbed. The water passes into the urinary bladder and is lost in the urine. When excess water is lost, there is a decrease in the concentration of water in the body, which can lead to serious problems. The first problem is dehydration which can even lead to death or shock if not compensated within time. Due to the low water content, the patient is forced to drink more and more water, and this water is continually lost in the urine, leading to the condition called polyurea. The first problem is dehydration which can even lead to death or shock if not compensated within time. Due to the low water content, the patient is forced to drink more and more water, and this water is continually lost in the urine, leading to the condition called polyurea. The first problem is dehydration which can even lead to death or shock if not compensated within time. Due to the low water content, the patient is forced to drink more and more water, and this water is continually lost in the urine, leading to the condition called polyurea.

Diabetes mellitus versus diabetes insipidus

  • In diabetes mellitus, the blood glucose level is high, while in diabetes insipidus, the glucose level is normal but excess water is lost.
  • Diabetes mellitus is related to a hormone called insulin, while diabetes insipidus is related to the hormone ADH.
  • In diabetes mellitus, one gland that is involved is the pancreas, and unlike diabetes insipidus, the pituitary gland is involved.
  • Diabetes mellitus is the most common types of diabetes, while diabetes insipidus is seen less.
  • In diabetes mellitus, the patient feels hungry due to the loss of glucose in the urine, on the other hand, in diabetes insipidus, the patient feels thirsty due to the loss of excess water.

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