Biology

Difference between cryptogams and phanerogams

Main difference

The main difference between cryptogams and phanerogams is that cryptogams are the plants that are generally known as non-spermatophytes, while phanerogams are the plants that are generally known as spermatophytes.

Cryptogams vs. Phanerogams

The cryptogams consist of Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, and Thallophyta, while the phanerogams consist of angiosperms and gymnosperms. The main reproduction method of cryptogams is spore formation, while the main reproduction method of phanerogams is gamete formation. Most cryptogams lack distinct leaves, stems, and roots; on the other hand, the plant body of the phanerogams has well differentiated leaves, stems and roots. The vascular system of cryptogams is not well developed; on the contrary, the vascular system of the phanerogams is well developed. The reproductive organs of cryptogams are hidden; on the other hand, the reproductive organs of phanerogams are well developed. External water is required for fertilization in cryptogams; no external water is required for fertilization in phanerogams. Cryptogams are seedless plants; On the contrary, Phanerogams are plants that produce seeds. In cryptogams, the spores germinate and result in the production of new plants; on the other hand, in the phanerogams, the seeds germinate and result in the production of new phanerogams. Cryptogams are the plants that are least evolved, while phanerogams are plants that are well evolved compared to cryptogams. Some examples of cryptogams include liverworts, mosses, algae, ferns, and hornworts, while some examples of phanerogams include cycads. , ginkgo, conifers, dicots and gnetophytes. while the phanerogams are the plants that are well evolved compared to the cryptogams. Some examples of cryptogams include liverworts, mosses, algae, ferns, and hornworts, while some examples of phanerogams include cycads, ginkgo, conifers, dicots, and gnetophytes. while phanerogams are plants that are well evolved compared to cryptogams. Some examples of cryptogams include liverworts, mosses, algae, ferns, and hornworts, while some examples of phanerogams include cycads, ginkgo, conifers, dicotyledons, and gnetophytes.

Comparative chart
Cryptogams Phanerogams
Cryptograms refer to plants or plant-like organisms that produce spores. Phanerogams are known as a superior group of seed-producing plants.
Classification
It consists of Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Thallophyta It consists of angiosperms and gymnosperms.
Main playback method
Spore production Gamete production
Vegetable body
Lack of distinct leaves, stems, and roots Well differentiated leaves, stems and roots
Vascular system
Not well developed Well developed
Reproductive organs
They have hidden reproductive organs The reproductive organs are well developed
External water for fertilization
External water is required for fertilization. No external water is required for fertilization.
Seeds
Seedless plants Seed-bearing plants
New Plants
The spores germinate and result in the production of new plants. the seeds germinate and result in the production of new phanerogams.
Evolution
Less evolved Well evolved
Examples
Liverworts, mosses, algae, ferns, and hornworts Cycads, ginkgo, conifers, dicots, and gnetophytes

What are cryptogames?

Cryptogams are considered plant-like organisms or seedless plants. Cryptogames are present and form a sub-kingdom in the kingdom of Plantae, which is called ‘Cryptogamae’. The main distinguishing characteristic of cryptogams is that they reproduce through spores. Therefore, cryptogams do not produce seeds, fruits, or flowers. Cryptogams consist of reproductive organs hidden in your body. The body of the cryptogam plant does not really differ in leaves, roots, and stem. Most cryptogames don’t even have a vascular system. The sub-kingdom of the cryptogams ‘Cryptogamae’ is further classified into three phyla: phylum Bryophyta, phylum Thallophyta and phylum Pteridophyta.

Highest ranking of cryptogames in the sub-kingdom

  • Thallophyta: It consists of both multicellular and unicellular organisms. Multicellular bodied organisms can be filamentous or thallus-like. The organisms present in the talofitas belong to the three kingdoms: Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Monera and Kingdom Fungi. In the monera kingdom, the blue-green bacteria present in the talophyte. All the green, red, and brown algae of the Protista kingdom are also present in talophyte. In addition, all lichens accompanied by fungi are also present in talophytes.
  • Bryophyta: Contain hornworts, mosses and liverworts, and. For the most part, they grow in humid, wet and shady environments. The body of the bryophyte plant is not well differentiated into stem, leaves, and true roots. Bryophytes show alternation of generations with a notable gametophyte. Bryophytes are considered non-vascular plants.
  • Pteridophytes: They are formed by ferns. Ferns are plants that are well developed and grow mainly in dry or humid environments. Ferns normally show alternation of generations with an obvious sporophyte. They are really differentiated into true roots, leaves, and stem. Ferns are generally considered vascular plants.
What are phanerogams?

Phanerogams are a superior group of plants that have seeds. They are also known as spermatophytes. They are present and form a sub-kingdom in the kingdom of Plantae called ‘Phanerogamae’. The main distinguishing feature of phanerogams is that they are seed plants and have seeds in their plant body. They are vascular plants with well differentiated body parts in roots, stem and leaves. The sub-kingdom of the phanerogams ‘Phanerogamae’ is further classified into angiosperms and gymnosperms.

Higher classification of the phanerogams of the sub-kingdom

  • Gymnosperms: These are flowerless plants that produce bare seeds. Since gymnosperms develop from a single seed leaf, they are therefore monocots. Gymnosperms are vascular plants with a similar arrangement of unbranched veins on the leaves. In addition, they are distributed in four phyla: phylum Ginkophyta, phylum Coniferophyta, phylum Cycadophyta and phylum Gnetophyta.
  • Angiosperms: They are flowering plants that produce covering seeds through fruits. Angiosperms can be dicotyledonous or monocotyledonous. They have a differentiated vascular system and their reproductive structure is the flower.

Key differences

  1. Cryptogams contain Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, and Thallophyta, while phanerogams contain angiosperms and gymnosperms.
  2. The main method of reproduction of cryptogams is the production of spores, while the main method of reproduction of phanerogams is the production of gametes.
  3. Many cryptogams have a deficiency of truly distinct leaves, stems, and roots; on the other hand, the plant body of the phanerogams has truly differentiated leaves, stems and roots.
  4. The vascular system of cryptogams is not well developed; on the contrary, the vascular system of the phanerogams is well developed.
  5. The reproductive organs of cryptogams are hidden; on the other hand, the reproductive organs of the phanerogams are well developed.
  6. External water is mandatory for fertilization in cryptogams; external water is not mandatory for fertilization in phanerogams.
  7. Cryptogams are plants that have no seeds; on the contrary, the phanerogams are the plants that produce seeds.
  8. In cryptogams, spores grow and result in the production of new plants; on the other hand, in the phanerogams, the seeds sprout and result in the production of a new plant.
  9. Cryptogams are plants that have not evolved much, while phanerogams are plants that have evolved well.
  10. Examples of cryptogams are liverworts, mosses, algae, ferns, and hornworts, while examples of phanerogams are cycads, ginkgo, conifers, dicots, and gnetophytes.
Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that cryptogams are plants that have no seeds and their body is not well differentiated, while phanerogams are plants that have seeds and have a well differentiated body.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

CAPTCHA


Back to top button