Both these terms chromosomes and chromatid are used in the study of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). It is worth mentioning that DNA is found in almost all organisms, including humans and; It is the hereditary material that is transmitted from parents to offspring. Since the spelling is quite similar and both terms are interrelated, it is difficult for people to distinguish between the two. They can be differentiated as chromosomes are the thread-like structures that make up the DNA molecule, while either of the two strands that form when a chromosome duplicates as part of the early stages of cell division is known as a chromatid. .
|Structure||Chromosomes are the threadlike structures that make up the DNA molecule.||Either of the two strands that form when a chromosome duplicates as part of the early stages of cell division is known as a chromatid.|
|Carry genetic material||Yes||Do not|
What is the chromosome?
A thread-like structure of nucleic acids and proteins found in the nucleus of most living cells and carrying genetic information in the form of genes is known as a chromosome. In a human body, each of the cells contains 46 individual chromosomes or 23 pairs of chromosomes. Of these 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs are the same in males and females, while the twenty-third pair is different in males and females. The 22 pairs of similar chromosomes are called autosomes, while the one that distinguishes males and females is called the sex chromosome. Chromosome pairing takes place in mitosis, which is an essential process of cell division. It should be noted that the chromosome is made up of DNA and proteins; carries the reproductive information that is passed down from parent to child. The chromosome shape is different in eukaryotes and prokaryotes; in eukaryotes, they are arranged in the linear pattern, while in prokaryotes they are arranged in the circular pattern. The point that divides chromosomes into two sections or arms is known as the centromere. At the same time, the centromere determines the location of specific genes and is also responsible for giving the chromosome its characteristic shape.
Chromatids are held together by a single centromere and then separate to become individual chromosomes. When we talk about the chromosome pair, we mean the presence of the two chromatids. In the chromosome pair, the chromatids are joined or joined using the centromere. When the two chromosomes separate individually after removal of the centromere, they are called sister chromatids because they resemble each other. Chromatids are just as essential as chromosomes in the mitosis process.
Chromosome vs chromatid
- Chromosomes are the threadlike structures that make up the DNA molecule, while either of the two strands formed when a chromosome duplicates as part of the early stages of cell division is known as a chromatid.
- When we talk about the chromosome pair, we mean the presence of the two chromatids. In the chromosome pair, the chromatids are joined or joined using the centromere.
- In other words, we can say that the chromatid is the sister of the chromosome.