Difference Between Carbonyl and Carboxyl

Main difference

The main difference between carbonyl and carboxyl is that a carbonyl is a group consisting of a carbon atom that is doubly bonded to an oxygen atom while carboxyl is a group consisting of a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group. which is bonded to each other through the carbon atom of the carbonyl group.

Carbonyl vs. Carboxyl

A functional group is a term from organic chemistry. It is known as a chemical group in a molecule that is basically responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions that occur in that molecule. Carbonyl group and carboxyl group are the two functional groups. A carbonyl group contains a carbon atom that is double bonded to an oxygen atom. Carboxyl groups, on the other hand, are composed of a carbon atom that is attached to a hydroxyl group (-OH) through a single bond and to an oxygen atom through a double bond.

The simplest organic compounds that have carbonyl groups are aldehydes and ketones, while the main class of compounds that contain carboxyl groups are carboxylic acids. A carbonyl group is a polar group while carboxyl groups also show polarity but this polarity is in their carbonyl group.

Comparison chart

carbonyl carboxyl
The group consisting of a carbon atom that is doubly bonded to an oxygen atom is called a carbonyl group. The group consisting of a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group that are bonded to each other through the carbon atom of the carbonyl group is called a carboxyl group.
Chemical formula
The chemical formula of the carbonyl group is –C (= O) – The chemical formula of the carboxyl group is –COOH
substitutes
This group can be attached to the two more atoms or to the group of atoms. This group can be attached to one more atom or to the group of atoms.
Polarity
Due to the charge separation between the carbon atoms and the oxygen atom, the carbonyl group has polarity. The carboxyl group shows a polarity due to its carbonyl group.
proton release
Protons cannot be released from the carbonyl group. The carboxyl group is capable of releasing a proton.
Dimer formation
Dimers cannot be formed from carbonyl groups. Carboxyl groups are involved in the formation of dimers.
hydrogen bonds
This type of group cannot form hydrogen bonds. This type of group is involved in the formation of hydrogen bonds.
carbonyl atom C
Carbonyl groups contain the carbonyl carbon atom that is attached to an oxygen atom through a double bond. Carboxyl groups contain the carbonyl carbon atom that is attached to an oxygen atom through a double bond.
Functional group
A carbonyl group is a functional group of organic compounds. A carboxyl group is a functional group of organic compounds.
Nature of C atoms
The carbonyl group contains the sp 2 -hybridized carbonyl carbon atoms . The carboxyl group contains the sp 2 -hybridized carbonyl carbon atoms .
Example
aldehydes and ketones Carboxylic acids
What is carbonyl ?

A carbonyl is considered as a group comprising a carbon atom which, in turn, is bonded to an oxygen atom through the double bond. Aldehydes and ketones are well-known examples of this group. Aldehydes are made up of aldehyde groups that have the chemical formula –CHO. This group comprises a carbonyl group that is attached to a hydrogen atom. Two alkyl groups are attached to the carbonyl group in ketones. The polarity of the carbonyl group is responsible for the reactivity of aldehydes and ketones.

The higher boiling points of carbonyl compounds are due to this. Because of the sp 2 -hybridized carbonyl carbon atom , aldehydes and ketones comprise a trigonal planar arrangement around them. Cinnamaldehyde (in cinnamon bark), camphor (camphor tree), cortisone (adrenal hormone), and vanillin (in vanilla bean) are some of the natural compounds that have a carbonyl group.

What is carboxyl ?

Carboxyl is a group consisting of a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group that are bonded to each other through the carbon atom of the carbonyl group. The chemical formula for this type of functional group is –COOH. The carbon atom of this group can form an additional bond with the atom in addition to these groups. It is an acid group. It dissociates at high pH values ​​and acts as a weak acid. They can form strong hydrogen bonds with water and with each other due to the –OH group. As a result, the molecules in this group have high boiling points. Amino acids also have a carboxyl group or sometimes contain more than one carboxyl group.

Key differences
  1. The group consisting of a carbon atom that is doubly bonded to an oxygen atom is called a carbonyl group, while the group consisting of a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group that are bonded together through the carbonyl carbon atom. . group is called a carboxyl group.
  2. The chemical formula of carbonyl group is –C(=O)-, on the other hand, the chemical formula of carboxyl group is –COOH.
  3. Carbonyl group is a kind of functional group which can bond to the two more atoms or group of atoms. On the contrary, carboxyl group is a kind of functional group that can be attached to one more atom or group of atoms.
  4. Due to the charge separation between carbon atoms and oxygen atom, carbonyl group has a polarity, on the other hand, carboxyl group is that kind of functional group which shows a polarity due to its carbonyl group.
  5. Protons cannot be released from the carbonyl group; on the other hand, a proton can be released from the carboxyl group.
  6. Dimers cannot be formed from carbonyl groups; on the other hand, the dimers are made up of the carboxyl groups.
  7. Carbonyl group is a kind of functional group that cannot form hydrogen bonds while carboxyl group is a kind of functional group that can form hydrogen bonds.
  8. The simplest examples of carbonyl compounds are aldehydes and ketones; on the other hand, the main compounds containing the carboxylic groups are the carboxylic acids.
Final Thoughts

The above discussion summarizes that carbonyl and carboxyl are the two organic functional groups that are responsible for the characteristic properties of organic compounds. The former is a group consisting of a carbon atom that is doubly bonded to an oxygen atom, while the latter is a group consisting of a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group that are bonded to each other through the carbon atom. carbon of the carbonyl group.

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