Biology

Difference between C3 plants and C4 plants

Main difference

There are several types of plants found in our ecosystem. Here, we classify them into two main types of plants C3 and C4 .There is more abundance of C3 plants compared to C4 plants. About 85% of the plants are C3 plants and 15% of the plants are C4 plants. The main or key difference between C3 and C4 is that C3 is found in all plants, photosynthetic and C4 is generally found in tropical plants. C3 plants do not have a reduction adaptation in photorespiration, but C4 plants have a tendency to reduce the rate of photorespiration. C3 plants have a higher rate of photorespiration, while C4 plants have a lower rate of photorespiration.For glucose synthesis, C3 plants require 12 molecules of NADPH and 18 molecules of ATP, while C4 plants require 12 molecules. of NADPH and 30 ATP molecules.

Comparative chart

Plants C3 Plants C4
Type of Plants C3 plants are photosynthetic plants. C4 are tropical plants
Population in% Approximately 85% of all plant species are C3. About 15% of all plant species are C4.
Photorespiration They have a higher rate of photorespiration. They have a lower rate of photorespiration.
Photosynthesis C3 photosynthesizes only when the stomata are open. C4 can photosynthesize even when stomata are closed or open.
Glucose synthesis C3 plants need 12NADPH and 18ATP for glucose synthesis. C4 plants require 12NADPH and 30ATP.
What are C3 plants?

Plants that have the C3 pathway are called C3 plants. C3 plants are called cool or temperate plants. The C3 plant is said to be a normal plant having a normal rate of photorespiration; these plants do not have the ability to reduce your photorespiration rate. About 85% of the world’s plants are C3 plants; These are all photosynthetic plants that have a higher rate of photorespiration. They photosynthesize when the stomata are open. These plants are generally less efficient in the photosynthesis process compared to C4 plants. Photosynthesis is the food-making process of plants, through which plants themselves make food using light energy. These plants have a normal leaf structure. These plants require around 12 NADPH and 18 ATP for glucose synthesis. C3 plants usually have only one CO2 fixation. These plants involve the first RUBISCO enzyme and have a CO2 offset point of 30-70PPM. Plants that use the cycle are mesophytic, xerophytic, and hydrophytic. C3 plants are well adapted to a cool, humid environment. They have an optimum temperature of around 65 to 75 degrees F and a soil temperature of 40 to 45 degrees F; its growth begins correctly at this temperature. They have no separation in CO2 fixation and the Calvin cycle. Some of the prominent examples of C3 plants are wheat, rice, and oats, etc. its growth begins correctly at this temperature. They have no separation in CO2 fixation and the Calvin cycle. Some of the prominent examples of C3 plants are wheat, rice, and oats, etc. its growth begins correctly at this temperature. They have no separation in CO2 fixation and the Calvin cycle. Some of the prominent examples of C3 plants are wheat, rice, and oats, etc.

What are C4 plants?

Plants that have the C4 pathway are called C4 plants. C4 plants are also called hot or temperate plants. C4 plants have a lower rate of photorespiration, in addition, these plants have the ability to reduce their rate of photorespiration. About 15% of the world’s plants are C4 plants; These are all tropical plants that have a low rate of photorespiration. They photosynthesize even when the stomata are open or closed. These plants are generally more efficient in the photosynthesis process compared to C3 plants. These plants have a Kranz leaf anatomy. They require around 12 NADPH and 30 ATP for glucose synthesis. These plants have a double fixation of CO2. C4 plants involve the first enzyme PEP carboxylase and have a CO2 offset point of 10PPM. Plants that use the cycle are mesophytic. C4 plants adapt well to warm or hot surroundings. They have an optimum temperature of 90-95 degrees F and the soil temperature of 60-65 degrees F; they grow best at this temperature. They have separation in CO2 fixation and Calvin cycle between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Some of the prominent examples of C4 plants are corn, sweat grass, and pearl millet, etc. They have separation in CO2 fixation and Calvin cycle between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Some of the prominent examples of C4 plants are corn, sweat grass, and pearl millet, etc. They have separation in CO2 fixation and Calvin cycle between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Some of the prominent examples of C4 plants are corn, sweat grass, and pearl millet, etc.

C3 plants vs. C4 plants

  • Approximately 85% of all plant species are C3 and only 15% are C4 plants.
  • C3 plants are photosynthetic plants, while C4 plants are tropical plants.
  • C3 plants are called cool season plants, while C4 plants are considered warm season plants.
  • C3 plants have a high photorespiration rate, while C4 plants have a low photorespiration rate.
  • C3 plants cannot reduce photorespiration, but C4 plants can reduce it too
  • C3 photosynthesizes only when stomata are open, but C4 can photosynthesize even when stomata are closed.
  • C3 plants need 12NADPH and 18ATP for glucose synthesis, while C4 plants need 12NADPH and 30ATP.

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