Bryophytes are non-vascular plants, while pteridophytes are vascular plants (with xylem and phloem).
|Definition||Bryophytes are embryophytes that do not have vascular tissues.||Pteridophytes are vascular plants that reproduce and disperse through spores.|
|Vegetable body||They have a leafy or stem-like plant body||Its plant body differs in stem, leaves and roots.|
|Habitat||Humid and shady places||Terrestrial environment|
|Size||1 mm up to 1 m||Up to 30 meters|
|Alternate names||Non-vascular plants||cryptogames|
|Nickname||Botanical amphibians||Botanical snakes|
|Sheets||Microphile (no gap)||Microphile and macrophile|
|Lessons||Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Anthocerotophyta||Lycopodiopsida, Polypodiopsida|
|Examples||Agrimony, mosses, hornworts, riccia, Marchantia, sphagnum, Polystichum.||Ferns, horsetails, mosses, quillworts, spikemosses.|
What are bryophytes?
Bryophytes are classified in the kingdom of Plantae and are non-vascular plants. They show alteration of generations where the gametophyte is dominant over the sporophyte. Cells of the gametophyte phase are haploid and produce spores. Most bryophytes are autotrophic. Bryophytes grow in shady and humid environments. Therefore, they are considered amphibians in the kingdom of Plantae. This class of plants produces phenolic compounds that deter herbivores. Other plants also benefit from the water collected by these plants. The size of bryophyte plants ranges from one millimeter tall to long strands about one meter long. The plant body of the bryophyte group does not differ in roots, stem and leaves. Bryophytes have root-like structures called rhizoids that allow these plants to anchor themselves to a surface. But the rhizoid does not absorb water. The plant body absorbs water and directs it internally into the plant body. Bryophyta (mosses), Marchantiophyta (liverworts), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts) are the three main divisions of bryophytes. Liverworts are flattened moss like leafy plants. Liverwort leaves lack a shoreline. But marginal cilia are present in liverworts. Some liverworts do not have chlorophyll, so they depend on a fungal partner for food. Mosses consist of simple single-celled thick leaves that are attached to a stem. They grow in dense green clumps. Whereas hornworts consist of an elongated horn-shaped sporophyte in the gametophyte. These plants reproduce asexually and sexually. Asexual reproduction occurs by fragmentation and small aggregations called gemmas. Water transmits sperm to eggs during sexual reproduction. Fertilization of the gametes causes the zygote to develop into a sporophyte in the female gametophyte. The spores that are produced by sporophytes are dispersed by the wind. Fertilization of the gametes causes the zygote to develop into a sporophyte in the female gametophyte. The spores that are produced by sporophytes are dispersed by the wind. Fertilization of the gametes causes the zygote to develop into a sporophyte in the female gametophyte. The spores that are produced by sporophytes are dispersed by the wind.
What are pteridophytes?
Pteridophytes are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that differ in roots, stem, and leaves. Because they do not produce flowers or seeds, they are called cryptogams. It is said that they were the first terrestrial plants and due to the presence of xylem and phloem, called “botanical snakes”. Its leaves are called fronds. Tree ferns have full trunks. They grow up to 30 meters long while their fronds grow about 4.5 meters long. Many ferns in the epic jungle are epiphytes that grow on the trunks of other trees. Simple pteridophytes consist of single unbranched veins, whereas true ferns consist of a highly specialized vascular system where there are distinctive spaces between the xylem and the phloem. Pteridophytes are a very diverse group on earth after flowering plants. They resemble the relative group of seed plants, that is, angiosperms and conifers. The sporophyte phase is the most prominent of the pteridophytes. Both the sporophyte and gametophyte stages are autotrophic. Gametophytes are multicellular and microscopically small. The gametophyte develops archegonia that produce ovules and antheridia that form sperm within the same plant. This is the reason why pteridophytes are unisexual plants. The fertilization of the gametes produces the zygotes that later form sporophytes. Pteridophytes do not have flowers or seeds. They reproduce by producing spores. Most of the pteridophytes are homosporous, while some of them produce microspores and megaspores. Microspores form microgametophytes, while megaspores form megagametophytes. Lycopodiopsida and polypodiopsida are the two classes of Pteridophyta. Lycopodiopsida is known as lycophytes, while polypodiopsida are called ferns. Lycophytes contain mosses and quillworts, while ferns contain horsetail, whisk ferns, grape ferns, maratthioid ferns, and leptosporangiate ferns.
- The sporophyte phase of bryophytes depends on the gametophyte, while the sporophyte phase of pteridophytes is independent.
- The sporophyte phase of bryophytes is greatly reduced, while in pteridophytes, the gametophyte phase is greatly reduced.
- In bryophytes, the antheridium is stacked while in pteridophytes it is sessile.
- In bryophytes, the sporophyte and gametophyte are physically connected to each other.
- In pteridophytes, the sporophyte and gametophyte are separated from each other.
- In bryophytes, the neck of the archegonium has 5 to 6 neck canal cells.
- In pteridophytes, the neck of the archegonium has 4 neck canal cells.