Biology

Difference between bone and cartilage

Main difference

Bones are hard connective tissues that make up the skeletal system, while cartilage is soft connective tissues that are present in the nose, ears, joints, and in the coverings of bones.

Bone versus cartilage

A bone is a hard connective tissue in the body that has a whitish tissue that completes the skeleton in humans and other vertebrates. On the other hand, cartilage is a rigid, flexible and connected tissue and mostly has its location in the larynx and the ear. Initially, they exist in large quantities in the body, but when a person grows, it is replaced by bone. Some of the main types of cartilage include the hyaline, fibro, and elastic types. On the other hand, some of the main types of bones include compact bones and spongy bones. The location of the bones exists throughout the body from our skull, ribs, legs, arms, back and even thighs. On the other hand, the cartilage area of ​​our body goes from the ears. Nose, larynx, trachea, joints, discs and epiglottis. Cartilage has a flexible nature with elasticity as a characteristic and existing flexibility. On the other hand, bones have a hard texture, less flexible, they also lack flexibility but have toughness. Bones always have an abundant supply of blood and therefore have more delicate characteristics and strength; on the other hand, cartilage does not have a fresh blood supply except for the perichondrium. The cartilage matrix may have calcium salts, but in most cases it does not exist. Although, calcium sales live in the bones. therefore, they have more delicate characteristics and strength; on the other hand, cartilage does not have a fresh blood supply except for the perichondrium. The cartilage matrix may have calcium salts, but in most cases it does not exist. Although, calcium sales live in the bones. therefore, they have more delicate characteristics and strength; on the other hand, cartilage does not have a fresh blood supply except for the perichondrium. The cartilage matrix may have calcium salts, but in most cases it does not exist. Although, calcium sales live in the bones.

Comparative chart

Base Bone Cartilage
Appearance Hard, inelastic and resistant Soft, stretchy and flexible
Location Mainly in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Joints, ear, nose and respiratory tract.
Food Through the vascular system Through nearby perichondrium tissues.
Growth Endochondral, intramembranous Interstitial growth, appellative growth
Constituents Cells and extracellular matrix Cells and extracellular matrix
Types Compact and spongy bones Hyaline, fibro, elastic cartilage
Applications Support, protection, aid to movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production. Reduction of friction, support, growth and development of long bones.
What is the bone?

Bones are strong, flexible, and semi-rigid supporting connective tissues. Bone is made up of cells and extracellular matrix. Cells in bone are called osteoblasts and osteocytes. Two other types of cells are also present which are osteoclasts and osteoprogenitor cells. The extracellular matrix of bones is made up of an organic matrix (30%) that contains proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, osteonectin and osteocalcin. In addition to these, collagen fibers are present. 70% of bone is made up of a bone mineral called hydroxyapatite and 30% is made up of water. Bones are resistant to twisting, bending, compression, and stretching. It is hard because it is calcified and the collagen fibers help it resist tensile stresses. The primary bone that forms anywhere is called woven bone, which is soon replaced by lamellar bone. In woven bone, the collagen fibers are random, while in lamellar bone they are parallel in layers. There are two types of mature bones; compact and spongy bones. The compact bones are located on the axis of the long bones in the diaphysis. These are 80% of all bones. The spongy bones are found at the ends of the long bones at the epiphysis. These make up 20% of all bones. Red bone marrow and a network of bone trabeculae are present in spongy bones. A dense fibrous layer where muscles attach, called the periosteum, is located on the outside of the bones. Bone-forming cells are also found in the periosteum. The tissues that cover the inner surface of the bones are called the endosteum. The internal cavity of the bones contains blood vessels and bone marrow that nourish the bone and play an important role in its growth. There are two forms of growth in bones; endochondral and intramembranous. Endochondral is the formation of bone in a temporal cartilage model, while intramembranous is the formation of bone directly on fibrous connective tissues. This type of bone formation occurs in some specialized places, such as the flat bones of the skull, maxilla, jaw, and clavicles. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells and later into osteoblasts, which secrete bone matrix. Once the osteoblasts are embedded in the matrix, they are called osteocytes. that secrete the bone matrix. Once the osteoblasts are embedded in the matrix, they are called osteocytes. that secrete the bone matrix. Once the osteoblasts are embedded in the matrix, they are called osteocytes.

What is cartilage?

Cartilage is a flexible, strong and semi-rigid supporting tissue. It can withstand compression but also show flexion. It is made up of cells (chondroblasts and chondrocytes) and extracellular matrix. In addition to these, 10% aggrecan, 75% water, and a blend of collagen fibers are also present. Cartilage is used to form the supporting structure of some organs, articulate the surfaces of some organs, and form the template for the growth and development of long bones. Cartilages are of three types; hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage. Hyaline cartilage is the most common and has a glassy appearance. Fibrocartilages are insertions of tendons and invertebral discs that are reinforced with parallel bundles of collagen fibers. The elastic cartilages are the outer ear and the epiglottis and they are elastic that have elastic fibers and collagen fibers. Cartilage is avascular, so it thrives on the long-range diffusion of nearby capillaries in the perichondrium. Therefore, the cartilage cannot thicken because the diffusion would not be sufficient to supply nutrients and oxygen to the cartilage. There are two forms of cartilage growth; interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. There are two forms of cartilage growth; interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. There are two forms of cartilage growth; interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. There are two forms of cartilage growth; interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. There are two forms of cartilage growth; interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. There are two forms of cartilage growth; interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. There are two forms of cartilage growth; interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium. interstitial growth and appositional growth. In interstitial growth, chondrocytes grow and divide and deposit more matrix within the existing cartilage. It occurs during childhood and adolescence. In appositional growth, new surface layers of the matrix are added to the pre-existing matrix by new chondroblasts of the perichondrium.

Key differences

  • Cells in bone are known as osteocytes, while cartilage cells are called chondrocytes.
  • The bone matrix is ​​vascular, while the cartilage matrix is ​​avascular.
  • The bone matrix is ​​organic and inorganic, while the cartilage matrix is ​​completely organic.
  • The bone matrix contains lamellae while the cartilage matrix is ​​homogeneous without lamellae.
  • The matrix of bones has a protein called ossein, while the matrix protein of cartilage is called chondrin.
  • The bone growth pattern is bidirectional, while the cartilage growth pattern is unidirectional.
  • Bones have a high healing potential, while cartilage has a low healing capacity.
  • Bone stores a high concentration of calcium, while cartilage is not important in calcium stores.

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