Biology

Difference between Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic

Main difference

The main difference between bactericidal and bacteriostatic is that bactericidal is the type of antibiotic that kills bacteria, while bacteriostatic is the type of antibiotic that prevents further growth of bacteria.

Bactericidal versus bacteriostatic

The bactericide destroys the bacteria; on the other hand, the bacteriostat inhibits the growth of bacteria. Bactericide work is irreversible; on the other hand, the work of bacteriostats is reversible. Bactericidal causes a decrease in several bacterial cells; on the other hand, the bacteriostatic does not cause a decrease in the number of bacterial cells.

Bactericidal antibiotics alter the bacterial cell wall; on the other hand, the bacteriostatic causes the inhibition of the growth of bacteria by preventing DNA replication and other metabolic activities. The bactericide can cause toxic shock syndromes; on the other hand, the bacteriostatic has no small side effects. The bactericide does not work with the host’s immune system; on the other hand, the bacteriostatic causes the host’s immune system to prevent the growth of bacterial cells.

Bactericidal use mainly in diseases such as meningitis and endocarditis; on the other hand, bacteriostats are often used in urinary tract diseases and gangrene wound infections. Examples of bactericidal are penicillin, vancomycin, monoglycoside antibiotics, while examples of bacteriostats are streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol.

Comparative chart

Bactericide Bacteriostatic
Bactericidal refers to the destruction of the bacterial cell. Bacteriostatic refers to the inhibition of the bacterial cell.
Action
Its action is irreversible Its action is reversible
Working
It works by interacting with the cell wall of the bacterial cell. It works by causing the prevention of DNA replication and protein synthesis.
Host immune system
It does not work with the host’s immune system. It works with the host’s immune system.
Side effects
It causes toxic shock syndrome. It has little or no side effects.
Amount of doses
A small dose can cause its effect. Only a high dose has its effect
Specificity
It is specific only for diseases like endocarditis and meningitis, etc. It is specific for urinary tract infections, gangrene wound infections, etc.
Examples
Includes derivatives of penicillin, vancomycin, monoglycosidic antibiotics, etc. Includes tetracycline, spectinomycin, sulfonamides, etc.
What is bactericidal?

Bactericide is the special type of antibiotic that works by killing bacterial cells. As it involves the destruction of bacterial cells, it causes a decrease in the number of bacterial cells. That is why the function of bactericidal antibiotics is not reversible. Destroy bacterial cells.

This destruction of bacterial cells causes toxic shock syndromes in the host cell. It generally does not work with the host cell’s immune system. This antibiotic is useful even in its small amount. The concentration of the bactericidal antibiotic to kill the bacterial cell is expressed in the term MBC. This type of drug is specific for some diseases such as meningitis, etc.

It destroys bacterial cells by interfering with and penetrating the cell wall of bacteria. This type of drug has little preference due to its side effects, being the most widely used bacteriostatic in this process. The bactericide contributes or causes the irreversible death of bacterial cells. Not only does it affect the cell wall of bacteria, but it also interacts with the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and enzymes of bacterial cells.

The bactericide does not cause any other effect on the bacterial cells rather than the direct treatment of bacterial cell death. Examples of bactericides include penicillin derivatives, vancomycin, and monoglycoside antibiotics.

What is bacteriostatic?

Bacteriostatic is a special type of antibiotic that deals with inhibiting the growth of bacterial cells. As it only participates in preventing the growth of bacterial cells, it does not cause a decrease in the number of individual bacterial cells. Therefore, the bacteriostatic function is reversible. It does not destroy the cell.

This type of antibiotic has few or no side effects on host cells. It completes its work by working with the immune system of the host cells. Bacteriostatic drugs are helpful in function when a large number of drugs are used. The concentration of bacteriostatic drugs to stop the growth of bacterial cells is expressed in the term MIC.

It is specific for urinary tract infections and gangrene wound infections. It performs its function by preventing DNA replication and protein synthesis. Bacteriostats, due to their few side effects, are the most used. It causes reversible actions that can reach their normal functions after the conditions are removed.

It not only prevents the growth of bacterial cells but also causes the prevention of the reproduction of bacterial cells. It is used to prevent bacterial cells from dividing into daughter cells by binary fission. The most common examples of bacteriostatic drugs are tetracycline, spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides, etc.

Key differences

  1. The bactericide acts to destroy bacterial cells, while the bacteriostatic acts to prevent the growth of bacterial cells.
  2. Bactericide action is not reversible; on the other hand, the action of bacteriostats is reversible.
  3. The bactericide does not work with the host’s immune system; On the other hand, bacteriostatic works with the host’s immune system.
  4. Bactericidal causes toxic shock syndrome; The bacteriostat has little or no toxic effect.
  5. Bactericidal antibiotics work mainly by interfering with the cell wall of bacterial cells; on the other hand, the bacteriostatic acts by inhibiting DNA replication and protein synthesis.
  6. Bactericidal causes a decrease in the number of bacterial cells; on the other hand, the bacteriostatic does not cause a decrease in the number of bacterial cells.
  7. The bactericide can perform its function through a small number of doses; on the other hand, the bacteriostatic can perform its function only with its high number of doses.
  8. The bactericide is specific only for diseases such as endocarditis and meningitis; On the other hand, the bacteriostatic is specific for urinary tract infections and gangrene infections.
  9. Examples of the bactericide are vancomycin and monoglycosidic; on the other hand, examples of bacteriostats are spectinomycin, sulfonamides, etc.
Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that Bactericidal refers to the destruction of the bacterial cell; on the other hand, bacteriostatic refers to the inhibition of the growth of bacterial cells.

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