Difference between bacterial cell and animal cell

Main difference

The main difference between the bacterial cell and the animal cell is that the bacterial cell is the prokaryotic cell that does not contain membrane-bounded organelles, while the animal cell is the eukaryotic cell that contains the membrane-bounded organelles …

Bacterial cell vs. animal cell

The bacterial cell contains various cellular contents that are openly present in the cytoplasm; on the other hand, the animal cell contains the cellular content in the membrane-delimited organelles. The bacterial cell does not contain a nuclear membrane around the nuclear content; on the other hand, the animal cell contains the nuclear envelope around the nuclear content. The bacterial cell is included in the prokaryotic cell type, while the animal cell is included in the eukaryotic cell type.

The bacterial cell contains a cell wall made of murein; on the other hand, the animal cell does not contain the cell wall. The bacterial cell contains the regular forms due to the cell wall; on the other hand, the animal cell does not have a regular shape due to the absence of the cell wall. Mitochondria are absent in the bacterial cell; on the other hand, mitochondria of varying amounts are present in the animal cell.

There are small ribosomes present in the bacterial cell, while large ribosomes are present in animal cells. Bacterial cells divide primarily into daughter cells by binary fission; on the other hand, the animal cell mainly divides into daughter cells by mitosis and meiosis.

In bacterial cells, reproduction occurs by asexual means, on the other hand, in animal cells, reproduction occurs by both sexual and asexual means. The bacterial cell is the cell that can be autotrophic or heterotrophic, while the animal cell is the only heterotrophic.

Comparative chart

Bacterial cell Animal cell
The bacterial cell is the prokaryotic cell. An animal cell is a eukaryotic cell.
Membrane Bounded Organelles
Absent in it Present in it
Cell content
Freely present in the cytoplasm Present in membrane-bounded organelles
Nuclear membrane
In it, the nuclear membrane is absent. In it, the nuclear membrane is present.
Ribosome size
It contains the small size of ribosomes. It contains the large size of ribosomes.
Cellular wall
It contains a cell wall made of murein. Does not contain cell wall
Cell shape
It contains regular forms like bacilli, etc. It does not contain regular forms due to the absence of a cell wall.
Mitochondria
It does not contain mitochondria. It contains mitochondria.
Centrioles
Does not contain centrioles Contains centrioles
Reproduction
It reproduces by asexual means of binary fission. It reproduces by methods of sexual meiosis and asexual mitosis.
Food dependent
Maybe it’s autotrophic or heterotrophic It is the only heterotroph
Size
Its size varies from 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Its size varies from 10 to 100 micrometers.
What is the bacterial cell?

The bacterial cell is the prokaryotic cell that does not contain membrane-bound organelles. The cell membrane covers the bacterial cell. The cellular content of the bacterial cells is not present in the membrane-delimited organelles. It is freely present in the cytoplasm. The DNA of the bacterial cell is also not covered by the nuclear membrane and is present in a single coiled form of chromosomes in the nucleoid.

The cell membrane is more covered by the cell wall which is made of murein. There are several functions of the cell wall in the bacterial cell, but the main function is to provide protection and maintenance of the cell shape. It gives rigidity to the structure of the bacterial cell. This maintenance of structure gives the bacterial cell a better shape which helps in the classification of the bacterial cell.

The entire structure of the bacterial cell is covered by a layer of glycoprotein called the glycocalyx, which provides resistance to the structure. It prevents bacteria from becoming dehydrated and helps protect the cell. Several other structures are present in the bacterial cell wall such as pili and flagella.

The bacterial cell can be autotrophic or heterotrophic, depending on the structure of the cell. The energy source in the bacterial cell can be an organic compound or sunlight. The bacterial cell can live as a single cell or it can be present in chains like diploids.

What is Animal Cell?

An animal cell is the large cell that is covered only by the cell membrane. An animal cell is a highly specialized cell that includes both unicellular and multicellular cell types. Animal cells contain single and double membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, etc. It also includes centrioles that help animal cells during the division process in the formation of mitochondria.

The size of ribosomes is larger than that of a bacterial cell which is 80S. its cytoplasm does not contain chlorophyll or chloroplast, making it a heterotrophic cell. The structure of an animal cell is maintained by the microfilaments that are present at the cell boundary below the cell membrane with the help of microtubules and intermediate filaments.

The functions of animal cells are highly specialized, such as the formation of energy compounds from organic compounds and the production of hormones and secretory substances that are used by other parts of the body. These major energy metabolisms occur in the mitochondria that contain certain enzymes for these processes.

The shape of the animal cell is irregular due to the absence of the outer cell wall that maintains the structure in the bacterial cell. It only contains the plasma membrane as an outer covering that allows the various movements through the cell membrane.

Key differences

  1. The bacterial cell is the small cell size from 0.2 to 2 microns, while the animal cell is the large cell size from 10 to 100 microns.
  2. The cell wall of bacterial cells is made of murein; on the other hand, the animal cell does not contain a cell wall.
  3. The bacterial cell includes prokaryotic cells; on the other hand, the animal cell is included in eukaryotic cells.
  4. Membrane-delimited organelles are absent in bacterial cells; on the other hand, membrane-bounded organelles are present in an animal cell.
  5. The cell walls of bacterial cells maintain their shape like cocci and bacilli, whereas the animal cell has an irregular shape due to the absence of a cell wall.
  6. Centrioles are absent in bacterial cells; on the other hand, centrioles are present in an animal cell.
  7. The bacterial cell can be food-dependent or independent; on the other hand, the animal cell is dependent on food.
  8. The bacterial cell divides by binary fission; on the other hand, the animal cell divides by mitosis and meiosis.
  9. Mitochondria are absent in the bacterial cell; on the other hand, mitochondria are present in the animal cell.
  10. The bacterial cell is of the primitive type, while the animal cell is of the evolutionary type.
  11. The bacterial cell contains a small size of ribosomes, while the animal cell contains a large size of ribosomes.
  12. Lysosomes are absent in bacteria; on the other hand, lysosomes are present in the animal cell.
Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the bacterial cell is the small-sized cell that reproduces only by binary fission, while the animal cell is the large-sized cell that reproduces by both mitosis and meiosis.

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