Difference Between Bacteria and Protists

Main difference

The main difference between bacteria and protists is that bacteria belong to kingdom monera while protists belong to kingdom protists.

Bacteria vs. Protists

Bacteria are microscopic organisms that are prokaryotes while protists are microscopic organisms that are eukaryotes. Bacteria are autotrophic and heterotrophic in the mode of nutrition while protists are photosynthetic or heterotrophic or both in the mode of nutrition. Bacteria use flagella and pili to move, while protists use cilia, flagella, and pseudopodia to move. Bacteria lack mitochondria, cytoskeleton, and chloroplast while protists have these organelles. Bacteria are found in all habitats, on the other hand, protists are found in moist places.

Comparison chart

bacteria protists
Bacteria is the microscopic organism that can live in a diverse environment. Protists are microscopic, single-celled organisms that are not plants, animals, or fungi, but a different group of organisms.
Classification
prokaryotes eukaryotes
mode of locomotion
Flagella and pilli Cilia, flagella, pseudopods
organelle differences
Mitochondria, Chloroplast and Cytoskeleton, is absent There may be mitochondria. Chloroplast is present in photosynthetic protists and cytoskeleton is present.
Immediate Release Tablets Strength
Found in all habitats Found in moist habitat
nutrition mode
autotroph, heterotroph Photosynthetic, heterotrophic or surgical combination
beneficial uses
The fermentation process, Production of antibiotics, Decomposition of sewage waste, Production of biogas, Use in pesticides Part of the food chain, Use in medical research, Use in puddings and ice cream as carrageenan

What are bacteria?

Bacteria is the single-celled microscopic organism that can live in a diverse environment. Bacteria belong to the prokaryotes. Bacteria differ in length and shape. The length of bacteria has been measured mainly in micrometers, and their shape varies from rod, spiral to spheres. Bacteria do not have a nucleus, and their DNA can exist in plasmids, which is a circular piece, or in nucleoids, which is a twisted, thread-like mass .The bacterial cell has spherical units called ribosomes, which assemble proteins with the help of information encoded in ribosomal RNA. Two protective shells surround the bacterial cell called the cell wall and the cell membrane, and the cell wall is the outer shell, but some bacteria do not have a cell wall like mycoplasmas. A capsule that is the outermost protective covering in some bacteria is also part of the bacterial structure. Bacteria move through long flagella or short pills and pills also play the role of transferring genetic material. Bacteria can be classified based on their shape, the nature of the cell wall, and the distinct genetic material. Based on shape, bacteria are classified as rod-shaped called cocci, cylindrical shape called bacillus and spiral shape called spirilla. Based on the composition of the cell wall, bacteria are classified as Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission and some by budding, cell multiplication occurs through mitosis. The change in the genetic material of a bacterial cell is due to the integration of additional DNA from the bacterial environment into the bacterial genome and is called horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer is achieved through conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission and some by budding, cell multiplication occurs through mitosis. The change in the genetic material of a bacterial cell is due to the integration of additional DNA from the bacterial environment into the bacterial genome and is called horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer is achieved through conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission and some by budding, cell multiplication occurs through mitosis. The change in the genetic material of a bacterial cell is due to the integration of additional DNA from the bacterial environment into the bacterial genome and is called horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer is achieved through conjugation, transformation, and transduction.

Example

Mycobacterium, Helicobacter pylori and Bacillus anthracis, etc.

What are protists?

Protists are microscopic, single-celled organisms, but their cells are highly organized with a nucleus and some specific organelles. Protists are not plants, animals, or fungi and are a totally different group of organisms from the three categories mentioned above. Protists possess a nucleus that is responsible for their gene transfers. Protists also have specific organelles that perform specific functions, for example photosynthetic protists have organelles called plastids that carry out photosynthesis. The plastids of some protists differ in color and in various membranes, for example, dinoflagellates and diatoms. Protists also have mitochondria that generate energy for them, but there are some protists that live in anaerobic conditions and possess hydrogenosomes for energy production. Protists are of two types according to the mood of nutrition; They are photosynthetic and heterotrophic, heterotrophs are divided into two categories called phagotrophic and somatotrophic. Phagotrops surround the food by their cell bodies and swallow the food. Osmotrophs obtain nutrients from the nearby environment by absorption. Mixotrophs are a class of protists that possess plastids and also eat organisms, for example dinoflagellates. Protists reproduce by binary fission or multiple fission, some protists reproduce sexually but very few. Free-living protists live in watery areas. Protists reproduce by binary fission or multiple fission. some protists reproduce sexually but very few. Free-living protists live in watery areas. Protists reproduce by binary fission or multiple fission, some protists reproduce sexually but very few. Free-living protists live in watery areas.

Example

Amoeba proteus and Paramecium Aurelia, etc.

Key differences

  1. Bacteria are microscopic organisms that live in various habitats while protists are microscopic organisms that mainly live in moist places.
  2. Bacteria belong to kingdom moners, on the other hand, protists belong to kingdom Protista.
  3. Bacteria are prokaryotes while protists are eukaryotes.
  4. Bacteria have a circular nucleus or plasmids, on the other hand, protists have a membrane-bound nucleus.
  5. Bacteria lack mitochondria, chloroplasts, and cytoskeleton, while protists have these organelles.
  6. Bacteria have flagella and pili as locomotor organs, while protists have flagella, cilia, and pseudopodia as locomotor organs.
  7. Bacteria reproduce asexually while protists mostly reproduce asexually but also reproduce sexually.

Final Thoughts

The conclusion from the above discussion is that bacteria and protists are microscopic organisms but they belong to different kingdoms and have their own characteristics.

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