Biology

Difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes

Main difference

The main difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes is that autosomes are generally involved in defining an organism’s somatic types, while sex chromosomes are generally involved in establishing an individual’s sex and sex-linked hormonal characters.

Autosomes versus sex chromosomes

Autosomes generally determine the characters of an individual, and all males and females consist of some type of autosomes; On the other hand, sex chromosomes usually determine the gender of an individual, and all men and women contain different sex chromosomes according to their shape, size and behavior. Autosomes are generally classified according to numbers ranging from 1 to 22; Rather, sex chromosomes are usually written with letters like ZW, XY, ZO, and XO.

Autosomes are considered the majority of chromosomes that are present within the genome; on the other side; Sex chromosomes are some of the chromosomes that are available within a genome. The 22 sets of autosomes in humans are homologous, while at the same time, the sex chromosomes in women are said to be homologous, and the sex chromosomes in men are called non-homologous.

The position of the centromere in autosomes is the same because autosomes are homomorphic; on the other hand, the location of the centromere on male sex chromosomes is not similar because they are heteromorphic, while the location of the centromere on female sex chromosomes is similar because they are homomorphic.

Approximately 200 to 200 different genes are present in autosomes, and chromosome 1 in humans, known to be the largest, contains approximately 2,800 genes; In contrast, the sex chromosome X consists of more than 300 types of genes, and the sex chromosome consists of just a few examples of genes because it is relatively small in size.

Comparative chart
Autosomes Sex chromosomes
The chromosomes that define all the characteristics other than sex-determining chromosomes are known as autosomes. The chromosomes that generally establish the sex of an individual are known as sex chromosomes.
Determination
Usually the characters of an individual are determined, and all males and females consist of some type of autosomes. Usually an individual’s gender is determined, and all males and females contain different sex chromosomes based on their shape, size, and behavior.
Labelled
Categorized according to numbers ranging from 1 to 22 Written with letters like ZW, XY, ZO and XO
Availability
Most of the chromosomes that are present within the genome are considered. Some of the chromosomes that are available within a genome are considered.
Homogeneity
The 22 sets of autosomes in humans are homologous. Sex chromosomes in women are said to be homologous and sex chromosomes in men are called non-homologous.
Centromere position
The position of the centromere is the same because autosomes are homomorphic. The location of the centromere on male sex chromosomes is not the same because they are heteromorphic, while the location of the centromere on female sex chromosomes is similar because they are homomorphic.
Number of genes
Around 200 to 200 different genes are present, and chromosome 1 in humans, known to be the largest, contains approximately 2,800 genes. The sex chromosome X consists of more than 300 types of genes, and the sex chromosome consists of just a few types of genes because it is relatively small in size.
Genetic disorders
Mendelian inheritance manifests itself through autosomal disorders. Non-Mendelian inheritance is shown by sex-linked disorders.
Height of homologous pairs
Both chromosomes are considered the same height in autosomal pairs. The y chromosome is considered shorter.
Number of pairs in the human genome
22 pairs A pair
Total number of chromosomes in the human genome
44 chromosomes Two chromosomes
What are autosomes

Autosomes are recognized as chromosomes other than sex chromosomes and generally define the attribute of an individual. Autosomes represent the somatic characters of an organism, which is why they are also called somatic chromosomes.

A genome mainly contains autosomes in large numbers. For example, in the human body, 46 chromosomes are present within a genome, and 44 of them are known as autosomes. A total of 22 autosomes are present as homologous pairs and are recognized in the human genome.

Both pairs of autosomal chromosomes consist of similar genes, which are mainly arranged in the same direction. An autosomal chromosome pair is considered different from other autosomal chromosome pairs in the same genome. The pairs of autosomes are classified in the form of digits that go from 1 to 22, according to the sizes of the base pairs present in each chromosome.

What are sex chromosomes?

The two pairs of chromosomes other than autosomal chromosomes that govern the sex of an organism are known as sex chromosomes, which are also called allosomes. Sex determination occurs mainly in plants and animals. In humans, only two sex chromosomes are present out of the 46 in their genome, which is considered Y and X chromosomes.

The female organism is characterized by the presence of XX chromosomes, and the male body is characterized by the presence of XY chromosomes. The female consists of two similar copies of sex-determining chromosomes, which are arranged in the same way on both X chromosomes.

That is why female sex chromosomes are considered homomorphic and are homologous to each other. The male consists of two different copies of chromosomes that determine sex, so they are considered heteromorphic and are not homologous to each other.

Key differences
  1. The main function of autosomes is to regulate the traits of organisms. Males and females usually consist of the same autosomal replica; On the other hand, the main function of sex chromosomes is that they define the gender of an organism and are present differently in men and women through their variability in their shape, size and behavior.
  2. Autosomes are generally characterized by digits ranging from 1 to 22; on the other hand, sex chromosomes are characterized with alphabets such as ZW, XY, ZO, and XO.
  3. A total of 22 pairs of autosomes that are present in humans are homologous; At the same time, female sex chromosomes are known as homologous because they contain XX chromosomes, while male sex chromosomes are known as non-homologous chromosomes because they contain XY chromosomes.
  4. Many chromosomes that are present in the genome are called autosomes; on the contrary, some chromosomes present in a genome are called sex chromosomes.
  5. The number of genes present in autosomes ranges from 200 to 2,000. The most massive chromosome is present in humans, containing about 2,800 genes; In contrast, on sex chromosomes, the X sex chromosome contains more than 300 genes, and the Y sex chromosome consists of only a few genes because it is considered comparatively small in size.
  6. Mendelian inheritance is manifested by autosomal disorders, while non-Mendelian inheritance is manifested by sex-linked diseases.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that autosomes are homomorphic chromosomes and determine the trait of an organism; in contrast, sex chromosomes are heteromorphic as well as homomorphic, and characteristically determine the sex of an individual.

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