The main difference between apoptosis and necrosis is that apoptosis is cell death in which the cell is canceled to maintain normal functioning in the body, while necrosis is the accidental death of a cell due to some uncontrolled factors that occurs outside the cellular environment …
Apoptosis versus necrosis
Apoptosis is known as the “predefined” death of a cell, while necrosis is known as the “premature” death of a cell. The apoptosis process takes place through the contraction of the cell cytoplasm, which is followed by the reduction of the cell nucleus; on the other hand, the necrosis process takes place due to inflammation of the cell cytoplasm with mitochondria that follows cell lysis.
Apoptosis is considered a natural biological process; on the contrary, necrosis is considered the uncontrolled process, caused by some external factors such as trauma, infection and toxins. In apoptosis, irregular bulging of the plasma membrane occurs without losing its verticality while the integrity of the plasma membrane is released in necrosis.
During apoptosis, chromatin aggregation occurs; on the other hand, no change in chromatin shape is observed during the necrosis process. The organelles present in the apoptotic cell during apoptosis remain functional even after cell death, but the mitochondria become permeable due to the formation of pores in their membrane, while the organelles in the necrotic cell during necrosis do not remain functional after death A cell.
During apoptosis, the integrity of the lysosomes remains as is, but the mitochondria become permeable; on the other hand, during necrosis, the integrity of the mitochondria remains the same, but the lysosomes become permeable. Apoptotic bodies, which are membrane-bound vesicles, have been produced that rupture the cell into small parts through apoptosis, whereas no vesicles are formed during necrosis.
|A natural process of cell death that takes place in the body in which the cell itself participates in death is known as apoptosis.||A process of cell death that occurs accidentally when cells are opened to dangerous external situations is called Necrosis.|
|Known as the ‘predefined’ death of a cell||Known as the ‘premature’ death of a cell|
|The process is carried out by the contraction of the cell cytoplasm, which is followed by the reduction of the cell nucleus.||The process takes place by inflammation of the cell cytoplasm with mitochondria that follows cell lysis.|
|The natural biological process||The uncontrolled process, caused by some external factors such as trauma, infection and toxins.|
|The irregular bulging of the plasma membrane occurs without losing its verticality.||The integrity of the plasma membrane falls apart.|
|Chromatin aggregation occurs.||No change in chromatin shape is observed.|
|The organelles present in the apoptotic cell remain functional even after the death of the cell, but the mitochondria become permeable due to the formation of pores in their membrane.||The organelles in the necrotic cell do not remain functional after the death of a cell because they disintegrate through swelling.|
|Mitochondria and lysosomes|
|The integrity of the lysosomes remains as is, but the mitochondria become permeable.||The integrity of the mitochondria remains the same, but the lysosomes become permeable.|
|Apoptotic bodies, which are membrane-bound vesicles, are produced that fragment the cell into small parts.||No vesicles are formed, but complete lysis of the cell occurs and the cell contents spread into the extracellular fluid.|
|Regulated by its initiation of passage through enzymes.||An unregulated process|
|The pathway depends on caspase.||The pathway is not dependent on caspase.|
|It requires energy because it is an active process.||It does not require energy because it is an inactive process.|
|Occurrence at 4 ° C|
|It is not carried out at 4 ° C because it is an active process||It takes place at 4 ° C|
|Releasing factors in the cytoplasm|
|Many factors, such as AIF and cytochrome C, are released into the cytoplasm of the suicide cell through its mitochondria.||No material is released into the cytoplasm of the dying cell.|
|It involves the breakdown of a single cell because it is a confined process||Destroy the group of adjacent cells|
The programmed cell death (PCD) or Predefined, a consistent and organized process for the development and growth of the organism is known as Apoptosis. Apoptosis is also sometimes referred to as cell suicide because the cell itself participates in death.
The main reason for apoptosis is that it maintains a balance in cell multiplication, which means that each cell present within the body contains a life of its own. The prominent example is red blood cells, which live their lives for only 120 days and are then eliminated from the body through apoptosis.
Well-defined morphological variations and many subsequent ones initiate the apoptosis process. In apoptosis, the cell first contracts on drying, then condenses, and finally divides into parts. Chromatin aggregation within the nucleus also occurs during apoptosis.
What is necrosis?
Another type of cell death, which also occurs inside the cell due to its high contact with dangerous external circumstances , which is different from typical situations, is known as Necrosis. Dangerous external conditions can damage the internal environment of the cell, accompanied by rapid death of tissues and cells.
Therefore, necrosis is classified as accidental inactive cell death. During the necrosis process, the cellular content is released into the extracellular environment, forming harmful effects on adjacent cells. The six morphologically different types of necrosis are liquefactive necrosis, caseous necrosis, coagulative necrosis, gangrenous necrosis, fibrinoid necrosis, and fat necrosis.
- Apoptosis is known as the predefined death of cells that takes place in the body at regular intervals; On the other hand, necrosis is known as premature or accidental cell death that can take place in the body due to many external factors.
- Apoptosis is considered the natural death of the cell because it is genetically controlled; conversely, necrosis is considered pathological because it is not controlled by genes.
- In general, no treatment is required in apoptosis because it is the natural death of a cell; on the other hand, medical treatment is necessary for necrosis because it occurs accidentally or due to some factors.
- The apoptosis process is necessary and beneficial to the body, while necrosis is dangerous and harmful to the body.
- Apoptosis is a self-derived method because it occurs when the cell gives an indication; however, necrosis occurs due to fungi, viruses, or any harmful toxin.
- The symptoms of apoptosis are not visible because they take place within the body, while necrosis shows severe symptoms such as inflammation or in addition to causing damage to adjacent cells.
The above discussion concludes that apoptosis is the naturally occurring biological process, while necrosis is the pathological process.