Biology

Difference Between Angiosperm and Gymnosperm 

They are plants provided with flowers, gymnosperms are plants that do not have flowers. Both groups belong to the spermatophytes or seed plantsThey are the ovules (female cell), fertilized by the male cell contained in the pollen, which have the plant embryo.

Angiosperm

They are seed-forming plants that have flowers. The flower is a showy organ made by groups of modified leaves, these modifications are in shape, color and size. These seeds develop within the ovary that grows and becomes a fruit.

The word angiosperm comes from the Latin Angiospermae and this from the mixture of the Greek words angeion which means vessel, case, container and sperma which means seed, semen.

German botanist Paul Hermann (1646-1695) is credited with using the word angiosperm to describe flowering plants.

reproduction of angiosperms

The sexual organs are surrounded by the corolla, the colored part of the flower, which is formed by the petals and surrounded by the calyx, a group of green leaves or sepals. In the event that the sepals and petals do not differ, as in tulips, they are called tepals.

The male and female organs are located very close in most cases. The male organ or androecium is formed by one or more stamens that consist of an elongated structure (filament), at the end of which is the anther, where the pollen is produced.

The gynoecium, female organ is formed by one or more pistils that are within the area surrounded by the stamens. Each pistil is made up of the following:

  • An ovary, which contains the ovules, and
  • A style that supports the stigma and glandular body that receives pollen during fertilization.

Pollination

They are usually used by insects and by the wind. Entomophilous plants have showy flowers with special shapes to attract insects. For example, orchids are flowers of various colors and shapes that are pollinated by insects.

In anemophilous plants, pollen is carried by the wind and deposited on the stigmas of other flowers. This is the case of corn and wheat plants.

Through the pollen tube the two sperm nuclei reach the ovule, one of the nuclei fuses with the nucleus of the egg cell. From the fertilized egg cell, the embryo is formed, the first phase of the development of the new subject.

types of angiosperms

They are the most widely distributed plants on Earth, they are included in a single phylum, the Anthophytas, which means that they originated from a common ancestor. Modern angiosperms are classified as monocots or dicots based on the structure of the leaves and embryos.

basal angiosperms

It is a set of plants that exhibit characteristics of mono and dicotyledons. Within this group are the magnolias, the laurel, the cinnamon tree, the water lilies or nymphs, the avocado or avocado and the peppers.

monocots

Here are herbs, onions, palm trees, orchids and grasses. They are identified by leaves with parallel veins, adventitious roots, and flowers in arrangements of three or multiples of three petals.

dicots

They are made up of two-thirds of the angiosperms on the planet. They are characterized by the presence of two cotyledons in the embryo, leaves with network-like veins, and a taproot. Within this group we find tomato plants, potatoes, beans, and mango, apple and peach trees, among others.

gymnosperm

They are seed-producing plants that do not have flowers. In gymnosperms, the flowers are replaced by cones, which lack ovaries. The ovules are naked, as are the seeds that form from them (they are not found inside a fruit).

Etymologically, the word gymnosperm comes from the Greek gymnospermos and means naked seed, for gymnos (naked), and sperma seed, semen.

Characteristics of gymnosperms

  • Seed plants adapted to life on land.
  • Autotrophic: they are photosynthetic organisms.
  • They have a vascular system, which includes xylem, phloem and roots through which water and nutrients are transported.
  • The seeds unwrap into flakes of cones or pineapples.
  • They produce male and female spores.
  • They are monoecious, the same plant has both male and female structures.

reproduction of gymnosperms

They are plants with two copies of their genetic material capable of producing spores. They are also heterosporous, that is, they have male and female gametophytes that develop from spores produced by separate cones.

The male cone gives rise to microspores that develop into pollen grains. The female cone produces megaspores that develop into ovules.

The wind releases the pollen grains that settle on the female cones. In the gymnosperm plant, fertilization takes a long time due to the slowness with which the pollen forms the tube through which it reaches the female gamete.

Types of gymnosperms

Gymnosperms reside in many ecosystems, mainly in temperate and cold regions since they have adapted to this type of climate. They are classified into four main phyla: Coniferophyta, Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta, and Gnetophyta.

conifers

It is a dominant set of gymnosperms, including pines, firs and junipers. In this type of plants, the sexual organs are protected by small scales, gathered in groups of different shapes (cones or cones).

The female cones are larger and form on short branches. The male cones form each spring in groups located at the ends of the longest branches, and this is where the pollen comes from.

Angiosperm and Gymnosperm

Definition Flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed in a fruit. Seed plants whose ovules and seeds are not formed in closed cavities.
Coinage German botanist Paul Hermann (1690) Scottish botanist Robert Brown (1825)
Etymology Latin Angiospermae, Greek angeion (vessel) + sperma (seed): seed inside a vessel. Greek gymnospermos, gymnos (naked) + sperma (seed): naked seed.
emergence Mesozoic Era (125 million years ago). Paleozoic era (390 million years ago).
Types
  • basal angiosperm
  • monocots
  • dicots
  • conifers
  • Ginkgoals
  • Cycads
  • Gnetophytes
examples The apple tree, bean plants, strawberries, Gingko biloba, Juniper sp., pines, cedars, cycads.

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