Medicine

Difference Between Amphetamine and Methylphenidate

Main difference

The main difference between amphetamine and methylphenidate is that amphetamine is a strong CNS stimulant while methylphenidate is a mild CNS stimulant.

Amphetamine versus methylphenidate

Amphetamine is a potent CNS stimulant; on the other hand, methylphenidate is a mild CNS stimulant. Amphetamine causes mental alertness and increases motor activity, while methylphenidate, although it causes mental alertness, has less effect on motor activities. Amphetamine has a half-life of 10 hours, while methylphenidate has an elimination half-life of 2-3 hours. The bioavailability of amphetamine after an oral dose is greater than 70%, while the bioavailability of methylphenidate after an oral dose is around 30%.

Comparison chart

Amphetamine Methylphenidate
Amphetamine is a potent CNS stimulant and indirect-acting sympathomimetic agent. Methylphenidate is a mild CNS stimulant and is chemically a piperidine derivative.
Role as dopaminergic drugs
Amphetamine acts as a dopaminergic drug because it acts as a dopamine-releasing agent and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Methylphenidate acts as a dopaminergic drug because it acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor.
controlled substance
Amphetamine is a Schedule II controlled drug. Methylphenidate is a type II controlled drug.
duration of action
3-6 hours when administered orally. 2-4 hours when administered orally.
Effect on the CNS
Amphetamine is a potent CNS stimulator. Methylphenidate is a mild CNS stimulator.
Drug interactions
Proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonist, tricyclic antidepressants Aripiprazole, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ibuprofen
Contraindications
Sensitivity to amphetamines or their analogues, Thickening of the arterial walls, Mild or severe hypertension, Bipolar disorders Anemia, manic depression, alcoholism, psychotic disorders, hypertension
Adverse effects
Raynaud’s syndrome
fast heart rate
Dry mouth
grind your teeth
Anxiety
Agitation
Stomach ache
loss of appetite

What is amphetamine?

Amphetamine is a potent CNS stimulant and indirect-acting sympathomimetic that exhibits peripheral α and β actions. Amphetamine is chemically a racemic β-phenylisopropylamine. Amphetamine is effective orally and has a long duration of action. Amphetamine is used to raise both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Amphetamine shows a marked contractile effect on the sphincter of the urinary bladder, which is why it is used in the treatment of enuresis and incontinence. Amphetamine shows a different response in the gastrointestinal tract under different conditions, that is, in case of pronounced enteric activity, amphetamine relaxes the intestine and causes a delay in the movement of intestinal contents, and if the intestine is already relaxed, it produces the opposite effect. Amphetamine stimulates the medullary respiratory center and increases both the rate and depth of breathing. Amphetamine causes a psychic effect and its extent depends on the dose and mental state of the person. Amphetamine causes wakefulness, alertness, and a decreased feeling of fatigue. Amphetamine elevates mood and improves the ability to concentrate. Amphetamine increases self-confidence and motor and speech activities. Amphetamine causes euphoria and enhances simple mental tasks. Amphetamine also improves physical performance, and for this, amphetamine is the drug of abuse. Amphetamine has a small analgesic effect. Amphetamine is also used to treat obesity as it depresses appetite by acting on lateral hypothalamic feeding. Amphetamine shows toxic effects when overdosed. Amphetamine causes a psychic effect and its extent depends on the dose and mental state of the person. Amphetamine causes wakefulness, alertness, and a decreased feeling of fatigue. Amphetamine elevates mood and improves the ability to concentrate. Amphetamine increases self-confidence and motor and speech activities. Amphetamine causes euphoria and enhances simple mental tasks. Amphetamine also improves physical performance, and for this, amphetamine is the drug of abuse. Amphetamine has a small analgesic effect. Amphetamine is also used to treat obesity as it depresses appetite by acting on lateral hypothalamic feeding. Amphetamine shows toxic effects when overdosed. Amphetamine causes a psychic effect and its extent depends on the dose and mental state of the person. Amphetamine causes wakefulness, alertness, and a decreased feeling of fatigue. Amphetamine elevates mood and improves the ability to concentrate. Amphetamine increases self-confidence and motor and speech activities. Amphetamine causes euphoria and enhances simple mental tasks. Amphetamine also improves physical performance, and for this, amphetamine is the drug of abuse. Amphetamine has a small analgesic effect. Amphetamine is also used to treat obesity as it depresses appetite by acting on lateral hypothalamic feeding. Amphetamine shows toxic effects when overdosed. and a reduced feeling of fatigue. Amphetamine elevates mood and improves the ability to concentrate. Amphetamine increases self-confidence and motor and speech activities. Amphetamine causes euphoria and enhances simple mental tasks. Amphetamine also improves physical performance, and for this, amphetamine is the drug of abuse. Amphetamine has a small analgesic effect. Amphetamine is also used to treat obesity as it depresses appetite by acting on lateral hypothalamic feeding. Amphetamine shows toxic effects when overdosed. and a reduced feeling of fatigue. Amphetamine elevates mood and improves the ability to concentrate. Amphetamine increases self-confidence and motor and speech activities. Amphetamine causes euphoria and enhances simple mental tasks. Amphetamine also improves physical performance, and for this, amphetamine is the drug of abuse. Amphetamine has a small analgesic effect. Amphetamine is also used to treat obesity as it depresses appetite by acting on lateral hypothalamic feeding. Amphetamine shows toxic effects when overdosed. and for this purpose, amphetamine is the drug of abuse. Amphetamine has a small analgesic effect. Amphetamine is also used to treat obesity as it depresses appetite by acting on lateral hypothalamic feeding. Amphetamine shows toxic effects when overdosed. and for this purpose, amphetamine is the drug of abuse. Amphetamine has a small analgesic effect. Amphetamine is also used to treat obesity, as it depresses appetite by acting on lateral hypothalamic feeding. Amphetamine shows toxic effects when overdosed.

Example

Examples of famous brands that contain amphetamine are Dyanavel and Evoker

What is methylphenidate?

Chemically, methylphenidate is a piperidine derivative and structurally resembles amphetamines. Methylphenidate is a pharmacologically mild CNS stimulant. Methylphenidate is available as methylphenidate HCl. Methylphenidate is a racemic mixture of its positive and negative enantiomer. Methylphenidate is a type II controlled drug. Methylphenidate is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methylphenidate increases the brain’s ability to concentrate. Methylphenidate fights fatigue. Methylphenidate also increases the brain’s ability to pay more attention and helps control behavior problems. Methylphenidate can treat narcolepsy. Methylphenidate is taken orally and, depending on the patient’s condition, methylphenidate is prescribed 2 or 3 times a day. The dose can be adjusted according to a patient’s response, ie, the dose can be increased or decreased. Methylphenidate is taken on an empty stomach and at least half an hour before eating any food. Methylphenidate must be taken strictly according to the prescribed dose, as an overdose of methylphenidate can cause death or respiratory problems. Methylphenidate is a prescription drug, so the pharmacy cannot issue this drug without a prescription because it is illegal. Methylphenidate is a norepinephrine-dopamine inhibitor, so methylphenidate causes euphoria. Methylphenidate modulates the level of dopamine and norepinephrine. Methylphenidate is rapidly absorbed when administered orally. The maximum plasma concentration of methylphenidate is reached in 2 hours. Methylphenidate is, although well tolerated, despite this, it has some adverse effects such as loss of appetite,

Example

Examples of famous brands that contain methylphenidate are Ritalin, Concerta, Inspiral

Key differences

  1. Amphetamine is a potent CNS stimulant; on the other hand, methylphenidate is a mild CNS stimulant.
  2. Amphetamine increases both mental alertness and motor activity, while methylphenidate only increases mental activity.
  3. The bioavailability of amphetamine after an oral dose is more than 70%, while the bioavailability of methylphenidate after an oral dose is approximately 30%.

Final Thought

The conclusion from the above discussion is that both amphetamine and methylphenidate are important for use in treating ADHD and improving mental alertness.

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