Difference Between Aldehyde and Ketone

Main difference

The main difference between aldehyde and ketone is that the carbonyl group of aldehyde is bonded to an alkyl group on one side and to an H atom on the other side, while the carbonyl group of ketone is bonded to two alkyl groups. on both sides.

Aldehyde vs Ketone

Aldehyde is considered an organic compound containing the general chemical formula R-CHO, while ketone is considered an organic compound containing the general chemical formula R-CO-R  . Aldehyde is generally more reactive compared to ketone and undergoes oxidation producing carboxylic acids. On the contrary, the ketone, without infringement of the carbon chain, cannot be oxidized and is less reactive than the aldehyde.

The IUPAC name of the aldehyde ends with an ‘al’ suffix; on the other hand, the IUPAC name of the ketone ends with the suffix “one”. The aldehyde is always present at the end of a carbon chain; instead, the ketone is normally present in the middle of the chain.

The aldehyde is found naturally in volatile compounds, eg fragrance compounds; on the other hand, ketone is found naturally in sugars. Aldehyde, which is present in sugars, are aldehyde sugars and are known as aldoses; Conversely, ketone, which is present in sugars, is known as ketoses in general.

Comparison chart

Aldehyde ketone
Aldehyde is an organic compound whose carbonyl group bonds with an alkyl group on one side and with hydrogen on the other side. Ketone is an organic compound whose carbonyl group is attached to two alkyl groups on one or both sides.
chemical structure
Containing the general chemical formula R-CHO Containing the general chemical formula R-CO-R
Reactivity
More reactive compared to ketones Less reactive than aldehyde
Oxidation
They undergo oxidation producing carboxylic acids. cannot be oxidized without breaking the carbon chain
IUPAC nomenclature
The IUPAC name ends with an “al” suffix. The IUPAC name ends with the suffix “one”.
Location of Carbonyl Group
Always present at the end of a carbon chain Normally present in the middle of the chain.
natural occurrence
It is naturally found in volatile compounds, for example, fragrance compounds. Naturally Occurring Sugars
Aldoses / ketoses
Sugar aldehydes are present in sugars and are known as aldoses. The sugars present are known as ketoses in general.

What is aldehyde?

The aldehyde can define through its chemical structure R-CHO in which C atom bonded to the oxygen atom through a double bond (R-(C=O)-H). Thus, one side of the end of the carbonyl group of the aldehyde is always an H atom, and the other side is attached to the alkyl group.

Aldehyde groups found at the end of the carbon chain. Therefore, if a carbonyl group is present at the end of the carbon chain, it means that it is an aldehyde. Since aldehydes form acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, they are extremely useful chemical compounds in industries.

The aldehyde is considered more reactive than the ketone because it shows variable results when combined with chemical reagents. Aldehyde goes through oxidation to produce carboxylic acid, and can be reduced to form alcohol.

Depending on the nature of the carbon chain to which the aldehyde is attached, numerous other functions take place. According to IUPAC names, when naming aldehydes, aldehydes always end with an “al” suffix. therefore, the names of the aldehydes of the corresponding alkyl group are, butanal, propanal, hexanal, etc.

Aldehyde can be differentiated from a ketone through various laboratory tests, such as Schiff’s test, Tollen’s test, and Fehling’s test is one of the famous tests for aldehyde. For example, during the Fehling test, the ketone does not show any reaction while the aldehyde forms red precipitates.

Aldehydes are considered more electrophilic because they do not consist of one electron giving the effect of an alkyl group. Furthermore, aldehydes give many problems during their synthesis. As a concern for their non-acidic proton, aldehydes can be difficult to remove for substitution.

What is ketone?

The ketone can be explained by its chemical formula R-CO-R  in which the C atom bonded to the oxygen atom through the double bond. As the carbonyl group of ketones is surrounded by alkyl groups which can be aliphatic, olefinic or aromatic on both sides or maybe one end contains benzene rings, so a ketone is never available at the end of a carbon chain.

Ketones are considered less reactive than aldehydes because they generally do not produce any reaction. Although ketones are mainly used as industrial solvents like ketones, ketones cannot be further oxidized because they are already present in their higher oxidation form, but they can go through reductive reactions to form the corresponding alcohols.

It is very easy to recognize ketones through their IUPAC names in which the ketone ends with a “one” suffix. For example, heaxanone, pentanone, butanone, etc. Ketones contain double bonds everywhere in the chain except at the end, so one can find the ketone in the middle of the chain where the double bond from the oxygen will be attached to one of the carbons. atoms.

Ketones are found naturally in sugars where they are known as ketoses. Ketones can be distinguished by some laboratory tests using Tollen’s reagent which is made from silver nitrate and a quantity of sodium hydroxide and a little dilute ammonia, which acts as an oxidizing agent.

When Tollen’s reagent is added to a ketone, no results are found. But if the same solution is added to the aldehyde, it will precipitate from the silver because the aldehyde oxidizes to a carboxylic acid, which the ketone cannot. This reaction looks very pretty if done right because the container will become silver-plated.

Key differences

  1. An organic compound that has the general formula of its chemical structure is R-CHO which is known as an aldehyde; on the other hand, the organic compound, which the general formula of its chemical structure consists of, is R-CO-R  is known as a ketone.
  2. The aldehyde normally contains an alkyl group on one side and a hydrogen atom on the other; In contrast, a ketone contains two alkyl groups present on both sides.
  3. The aldehyde is considered more reactive than the ketone because it shows variable results when combined with chemical reagents; on the other hand, ketone is considered less reactive than aldehyde because it usually does not give any reaction.
  4. According to the IUPAC name of aldehyde, it ends with the suffix ‘al’; conversely, according to the ketone’s IUPAC name, it ends with the suffix “one.”
  5. The aldehyde undergoes oxidation and produces carboxylic acid; on the other hand, ketones do not undergo the oxidation process.
  6. The aldehyde contains carbonyl groups that are present at the end of the carbon chain; on the contrary, the ketone contains carbonyl groups normally present in the middle of the chain.
  7. Aldehydes occur naturally in volatile compounds such as fragrance compounds, while ketones occur naturally in sugars and are generally known as ketoses.

Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that both the aldehyde and the ketone contain the carbonyl groups. The difference between them is that aldehyde contains one alkyl atom and one hydrogen atom while ketone contains two alkyl groups on both sides.

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