Biology

Difference between ADP and ATP

Main difference

The main difference between ADP and ATP is that the ADP molecule consists of two molecules of the phosphate group of ATP, and the third molecule is a decomposition that produces the release of a large amount of energy, while ATP consists of three molecules of phosphate the third phosphate is attached to other phosphate groups that have a high energy bond.

ADP vs. ATP

The abbreviation for ADP is adenosine diphosphate, while the abbreviation for ATP is adenosine triphosphate. The molecular structure of ADP contains adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and two phosphate groups (diphosphate), while the molecular structure of ATP contains adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups (triphosphate). ). ADP consists of two phosphate groups; on the other hand, ATP consists of three phosphate groups.

The chemical formula of ADP is C 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 -P 2 ; instead, the chemical formula of ATP is written as C 10 H 16 N 5 O 13 P 3 . The molar mass of ADP is 427.201 g / mol; conversely, the molar mass of ATP consists of 507.18 g / mol. The density of ADP is calculated as 2.49 g / mL; on the other hand, the density of ATP is calculated as 1.04 g / cm 3 .

ADP is generally a low-energy molecule that corresponds to ATP; On the other hand, ATP is usually a high-energy molecule relative to ADP. The energy release mechanism for ADP is ADP + H2O → AMP + PPi; on the contrary, the energy release mechanism of ATP is ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi ΔG˚ = −30.5 kJ / mol (−7.3 kcal / mol).

The functions of ADP are described as used in the activation of blood platelets, or plays a role in the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex, used in catabolic pathways such as glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. On the other hand, the functions of ATP are described as it plays a role in the synthesis of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, metabolism in cells, activation of amino acids and proteins, active transport of molecules, maintenance of cell structure and contribution to the cell. signaling. The least amount of energy is stored in the ADP molecule, as it contains only two phosphate molecules, while a large amount of energy is stored in ATP, as it consists of three phosphate molecules.

The third phosphate molecule is added to ADP using some energy from food during the conversion of ADP to ATP, while the third phosphate molecule is hydrolyzed with water or releases energy during the conversion of ATP to ADP. The ADP molecule is generally formed from ATP through the process of mitosis and maintenance of homeostasis; conversely, ATP is formed from ADP by fermentation, photophosphorylation, and cellular respiration.

Comparative chart

ADP ATP
ADP generally refers to the organic compound, which acts as the end product of ATP’s energy transmission. ATP generally refers to an organic molecule that consists of adenosine and three phosphate molecules and helps as the cell’s energy bank.
Abbreviation
Adenosine diphosphate Adenosine triphosphate
Molecular structure
It comprises adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and two phosphate groups (diphosphate) It comprises adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups (triphosphate)
Number of phosphate groups
It consists of two phosphate groups It consists of three phosphate groups
Chemical formula
10 H 15 N 5 O 10- P 2 10 H 16 N 5 O 13 P 3
Molar mass
427.201 g / mol 507.18 g / mol
Density
2.49 g / ml 1.04 g / cm 3
Energy state of the molecule
Generally, a low-energy molecule that matches ATP Usually a high-energy molecule related to ADP.
Energy release mechanism
ADP + H2O → AMP + PPi ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi ΔG˚ = −30.5 kJ / mol (−7.3 kcal / mol)
Amount of energy stored
The least amount of energy is stored, as it contains only two phosphate molecules. A large amount of energy is stored in ATP, as it consists of three phosphate molecules.
Conversion
The third phosphate molecule is added to ADP using some energy from food during the conversion of ADP to ATP. The third phosphate molecule is hydrolyzed by water or releasing energy during the conversion of ATP to ADP.
Processes
It is generally formed from ATP by the process of mitosis and maintains homeostasis. Formed from ADP by fermentation, photophosphorylation, and cellular respiration.
Features
It is used in the activation of blood platelets or plays a role in the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex. It plays a role in the metabolism of cells, the activation of amino acids, the synthesis of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins.

What is ADP?

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) generally indicates the organic compound, which functions as the end product of ATP’s energy transmission. ADP is considered an important component of nucleic acids, as it is one of the most important and abundant molecules present in the cell.

The molecular structure of ADP from which it is formed contains adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and two phosphate groups (diphosphate). This structure of ADP is vital for the flow of energy in biological systems.

ADP is formed as a product of the dephosphorylation of an ATP molecule through enzymes called ATPase. The IUPAC name given to ADP is hydrogen [(2R, 3S, 4R, 5R) -5- (6-aminopterin-9-yl) -3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl] methylphosphate. ADP molecules are also called adenosine 5′-diphosphate.

ADP Features

  • It is used in the activation of blood platelets.
  • Plays a role in the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex
  • It is used in catabolic pathways such as glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • It usually stores and releases energy.
  • It provides the energy necessary to receive and send ions that transmit signals between neurons.

What is ATP?

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generally refers to an organic molecule that consists of adenosine and three phosphate molecules and helps as the power bank of the cell. ATP is specifically used by biological individuals as a coenzyme for the transmission of intracellular chemical energy within cells for its decomposition, since it is the central energy transport molecule used in living organisms.

ATP is formed from ADP by fermentation, photophosphorylation, and cellular respiration. The molecular structure of the ATP from which it is composed generally contains adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and all three phosphate groups (triphosphate).

ATP biosynthesis by

  • Glycolysis : 2NAD + + 2 ADP + Pi + 2 Glucose = 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 H 2 O + 2 NADH
  • Fermentation: Glucose = 2CH 3 CH (OH) COOH + 2 ATP

Features

  • It plays a role in the degradation of cells.
  • Activation of amino acids
  • Synthesis of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins.
  • Active transport of molecules
  • Maintain cell structure
  • Contribute to cell signaling

Key differences

  1. ADP consists of two phosphate groups; on the other hand, ATP consists of three phosphate groups.
  2. Adenosine diphosphate is short for ADP, while adenosine triphosphate is short for ATP.
  3. The molecular structure of ADP consists of adenosine and two phosphate groups, while the molecular structure of ATP consists of adenosine and three phosphate groups.
  4. 10 H 15 N 5 O 10 P 2 is the chemical formula of ADP; conversely, C 10 H 16 N 5 O 13 P 3 is the chemical formula of ATP.
  5. The molar mass of ADP contains 427.201 g / mol; conversely, the molar mass of ATP contains 507.18 g / mol.
  6. The density of ADP is considered 2.49 g / mL; on the other hand, the density of ATP is considered to be 1.04 g / cm 3 .
  7. ADP is generally considered a low-energy molecule; On the other hand, ATP is generally considered a high-energy molecule.
  8. The energy release mechanism for ADP is ADP + H2O → AMP + PPi; on the contrary, the energy release mechanism of ATP is ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi ΔG˚ = −30.5 kJ / mol (−7.3 kcal / mol).
  9. It plays a role in the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex, the activation of blood platelets, which is used in catabolic forms such as the citric acid cycle, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are the functions of ADP in which it is mainly used; on the other hand, it plays a role in the metabolism of cells, the activation of amino acids and the synthesis of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins are the main functions of ATP.
  10. As the ADP molecule consists of only two phosphate molecules, that means it has less stored energy, whereas ATP consists of three phosphate molecules, so a large amount of energy is stored in the ATP molecule.
  11. During the conversion of ADP to ATP, the third phosphate molecule is added to ADP using some energy from food, while during the conversion of ATP to ADP, the third phosphate molecule is hydrolyzed by water or releasing some energy.
  12. Through the process of mitosis and maintenance of homeostasis, the ADP molecule is formed from ATP; conversely, ATP is produced from ADP by fermentation, photophosphorylation, and cellular respiration.
Final Thought

The above discussion concludes that the ADP molecule consists of two molecules of a phosphate group, and the third molecule is a decomposition that results in the release of a large amount of energy, but it is generally a low-energy molecule, while the ATP consists of three molecules. Phosphate and the third phosphate are attached to other phosphate groups with a high-energy bond, and it is a high-energy molecule.

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