Chemistry

Difference Between Acyl and Acetyl

Main difference

The main difference between acyl and acetyl is that acyl may or may not sometimes consist of a –CH 3 group , while acetyl consists mainly of a –CH 3 group .

Acyl vs. Acetyl

Acyl group is known as a functional group that contains the chemical formula of –C(O)R; On the other hand, acetyl is also known as a functional group, but it has the chemical formula –C(O)R. An acyl group may or may not contain a methyl group attached to its structure; conversely, an acetyl group more importantly contains a methyl group attached to its structure.

Molecules consisting of an acyl group can undergo acylation. On the other hand, molecules that specifically contain acetyl groups can undergo acetylation. Acyl contains two distinct components, the carbonyl group and an alkyl group. In contrast, acetyl, on the other hand, contains the same carbonyl group as acyl, but the alkyl group is replaced by methyl.

The example of acyl is acyl chloride, which consists of a carbonyl group (C=O), a chlorine group (Cl), and an R group. In contrast, the example of acetyl on the other face is acetylchloro on the consisting of a carbonyl group (C = O), a chlorine group (Cl), and a methyl group.

Comparison chart

acyl Acetyl
A group that is formed by the removal of one or more than one hydroxyl group from an oxo acid that also has inorganic acids is known as an acyl. Acetyl is known as the univalent radical, which is derived from acetic acid
Introduction
Known as a functional group containing the chemical formula of –C(O)R Also called a functional group but with the chemical formula –C(O)R
Presence of methyl group
It may or may not contain a methyl group attached to its structure. Most importantly, it contains a methyl group attached to its structure.
Chemical reactions
Molecules consisting of an acyl group can undergo acylation. Molecules that specifically contain acetyl groups primarily undergo acetylation.
structural components
Contains two distinct components: carbonyl group and an alkyl group It contains the same carbonyl group as acyl, but the alkyl group is replaced by methyl.
Example
The example is acyl chloride in which it is composed of a carbonyl group (C=O), a chlorine group (Cl), and an R group. The example is acetylchloro, which consists of a carbonyl group (C = O), a chlorine group (Cl), and a methyl group.
What is acyl?

An acyl is considered as a functional group that contains the chemical structure –C(O)R and is formed from an oxo acid. The R group in acyl is known as an alkyl group, which bonds with the carbon atom through a single bond, and the oxygen in the acyl group bonds with the carbon atom through a double bond, forming the group carbonyl.

The acyl group undergoes one of the main acylation reactions. Acylation reaction is the general description of an acyl group in the different molecules. The following example can show the acylation of benzene. Here, the “X” group is known as the leaving group, which is often a halogen atom.

The acyl group in the above example attached to the benzene ring replacing the hydrogen atom present on the benzene ring. This entire reaction is known as an electrophilic substitution reaction because the “X” group of the acyl leaves and gives a positive charge to the central carbon atom of the acyl group. That is why the acyl group also acts as an electrophile. After that, the acyl replaces the hydrogen atom of the benzene ring, which is known as substitution.

The acyl group also undergoes the nucleophilic substitution reaction, which is the replacement of the leaving group of molecules containing the acyl group through a nucleophile. This could be explained by the example where a molecule having an acyl group attached to a halogen normally undergoes substitution reactions. In this, the halogen is replaced with a nucleophile, for example an amine. After that the result will be an amide and the byproduct will be a halide.

The acyl group can be identified in laboratories when acyl chlorides hydrolyze in water and provide precipitates with aqueous silver nitrate. Examples of acyl group-containing molecules are acyl chlorides (eg, benzoyl chloride), aldehydes (eg, propionaldehyde), and amides (eg, benzamide).

What is acetyl?

Acetyl is considered a functional group that has the structural formula –C(O)CH 3 . The acetyl group specifically contains the methyl group, and its structural formula indicates that the acetyl group is the derivative of the acyl group.

The -CH methyl group -3 in the acetyl group bonded with the carbon atom and the oxygen atom bonded with the carbon atom through the double bond. The acetyl group undergoes the acetylation reaction. Acetylation is known as the introduction of an acetyl group into a different molecule.

The following example explains the acetylation of 2-bromosorcinal. In this particular example, the hydrogen atom of the benzene ring is replaced by the acetyl group. The –OH group is the leaving group of the molecule that has the acetyl group. Therefore, the H 2 O molecule would be the byproduct of this reaction. The opposite reaction to acetylation is deacetylation.

Acetylation is widely used in pharmacology as acetylated organic molecules show the ability to cross the selectively permeable barrier between blood and brain. It helps the administered drug reach the brain more quickly and efficiently. In addition, it increases the effects of drugs more intensely and increases the effectiveness of a given dose.

Resveratrol acetylation is widely used, and more importantly, as one of the first anti-radiation drugs for human use. Examples of molecules that have the acetyl group are aldehydes (for example, acetaldehyde), carboxylic acids (for example, acetic acid), acyl chlorides (for example, acetyl chloride), esters (for example, methyl acetate), and amides (eg acetamide).

Key differences

  1. An acyl is a functional group that is formed by the removal of one or more hydroxyl groups; on the other hand, an acetyl is also a functional group that is known as the resulting univalent radical of acetic acid.
  2. The structural formula of acyl is -C(O)R; on the contrary, the chemical formula of acetyl is –C(O)R.
  3. A methyl group -CH 3 may or may sometimes not be present in acyl; on the other hand, a methyl group –CH 3 is always present in its structure.

The acyl group molecules normally go through the acylation process while on the other hand, the acetyl group molecules normally go through the acetylation process.

  1. The two distinct components: the carbonyl group and an alkyl group are typically present on the acyl group; on the other hand, the two distinct components are also present in the acetyl: the carbonyl group and the methyl group which is normally replaced by the alkyl group.
  2. Acyl chloride is the example of acyl, which contains a carboxyl group C=O, a chloro group Cl and an alkyl group R; on the contrary, acetyl chloride is the example of acetyl containing a carboxyl group C = O, a chloro group Cl and a methyl group CH 3 .

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button