Difference Between Abstraction and Encapsulation

Main difference

Computer Programming is a vast field, and there are many terms that, although they come from the general language, have different meanings in this technical software. Two similar names are called encapsulation and abstraction. In general expressions, abstraction is the process of removing one element from a set of others, for example, we remove salt from seawater. Encapsulation, on the other hand, is the process of putting something together in a secure place. The best example, in this case, would be the capsule that contains a medicine in some form. Therefore, abstraction in the case of object-oriented programming is the process by which the user can extract information that is considered important and , in doing so, ignore information that is not essential to the current process. It can be termed as a fixed process to get what is required. Encapsulation is the procedure of configuring data in such a way that the stuff that is needed should already be visible while the stuff that is not needed should not be visible to avoid unnecessary problems. Both terms are opposite of each other in a way that abstraction deals with the general nature of a process, while encapsulation deals with the process that results in the original character. To simplify the understanding of these terms, encapsulation focuses in implementing the structure and hiding the processes, while abstraction is concerned with keeping the two separate. When it comes to solving problems, they both have different criteria. Abstraction is concerned with solving a problem at the initial level, while encapsulation is concerned with solving problems at the implementation level. For a more complicated explanation regarding programming, Abstraction keeps the implementation safe with the help of the design and the abstract class. While encapsulation keeps the data safe with the help of setters and getters. More details about these two terms and explanation can be given in the following provides to help understand them properly.

Comparison chart

Abstraction encapsulation
Definition The process of obtaining information. The process of containing information.
management The required information can be taken in such a way that only the necessary parts are extracted The information you give is the only one that is necessary and all other data that is irrelevant is already hidden.
Solution The problem is solved at the interface level. The problem is resolved when the code is deployed.
Example The external buttons of a cell phone can be considered an abstraction. The chip on which all the programming exists can be considered encapsulated.

Definition of abstraction

For object-oriented programming, abstraction is the process of obtaining information. The required information can be taken in such a way that only the necessary parts are extracted and those considered less important are ignored. Or unnecessary information can be drained to keep only sensitive data intact. In this case, most classes have no implementation at all, and most of the troubleshooting is completed in the interface stage. The classes for abstract are already present, and can be used when we have to share common functions and therefore in abstraction there is the possibility of creating new variables. This term can be best explained in everyday use, and the best definition will be the process of dealing only with ideas and not with events. Something that does not exist and is just an idea is called Abstraction. There are different types of abstraction modes, such as data, functional, synthetic, control, resource, and storage abstraction, and there are independent forms of creation. All of these factors help to present the statistics that are essential, and information that is less important can be kept hidden separately from the main screen, this can also be called data hiding in plain language.

Encapsulation Definition

Encapsulation is the process of containing information. The information it gives is the only one that is necessary and all other data that is irrelevant is already hidden. In this case, problem resolution is done at the implementation stage. It is sometimes considered as an extension of abstraction and is a process by which material can be collected in one place, this is very different from information hiding and only shows the information that is considered necessary. Therefore, it is used to hide the programming code from a layman. For a more general understanding of this concept, encapsulation is keeping something in a capsule and displaying only the essential features of a product. For example, when a person uses software, he doesn’t know what the encoding is,

Differences in a nutshell

  1. In Abstraction, the problem is solved at the interface level. In Encapsulation, the problem is resolved when the code is implemented.
  2. In Abstraction the less sensitive data is ignored and only the important data is collected, while in Encapsulation all the information is kept in one place and only the simplest is displayed.
  3. In Abstraction, the focus is on the idea rather than the details of the process. In Encapsulation, the hidden details of how the process was carried out are hidden from the user.
  4. All the variables that help to perform the abstraction are encapsulated, but it is not necessary to abstract all the objects that result in the encapsulation.
  5. The external buttons of a cell phone can be considered as an abstraction, while the chip in which all the programming exists in the internal structure of a cell phone can be considered as encapsulated.
Final Thought

Abstraction and Encapsulation are two very different terms from each other and that is what this article has done, explaining the main differences between them in a proper way so that people do not find it difficult to understand the correct meanings and hopefully, that the tasks has been achieved through this platform.

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